CRAAP test: evaluating source credibility

Evaluating the credibility of the sources you use is of key importance to ensure the credibility and reliability of your academic research. California State University developed the CRAAP test to help evaluate the credibility of a source. There are five main considerations:

  1. Currency: Is the information up-to-date?
  2. Relevance: Is the information relevant and of a level appropriate for your research?
  3. Authority: Where is the information published and who is the author?
  4. Accuracy: Where does the information come from? Is it supported by evidence?
  5. Purpose: Why was this information published? What was the motive?

Together these considerations form the acronym CRAAP; a well-known method for evaluating source credibility.

For each type of source (website, journal, book, etc.) we formulated different questions that fall within the five categories of the CRAAP test.

Infographic explaining the CRAAP test

To further explain the CRAAP test and how you should use it to evaluate source credibility we created an infographic: evaluating source credibility using the CRAAP test. Click the image to open the infographic.

Evaluating source credibility using craap test

CRAAP test websites

Websites are the type of source most likely to lack credibility. Therefore, you should be particularly careful when deciding to use a website in your research.

Your sources should be written by unbiased, professional experts, not persons or publications with a commercial interest.

Example of an article with a commercial interest
This article about AI platforms in the business world appears to be a news report on a new product. However, the company Genpact actually paid to publish the article, which is designed to sell their AI platform.

Ask yourself the following craap questions:

  • Who is the author or publisher?
  • What are the motives for publishing the information? Do they want to teach or educate the audience, sell something, or convince the reader of a certain point of view?
  • Was the source published or updated recently?
  • What is the URL? .edu (educational institutions, including universities) and .gov (government institutions) are the most reliable.
  • Are the links still working and what kinds of sources do they lead to?
  • Is there contact information where you can reach the author/publisher?

Examples of .gov website that might be of use in academic research include Science.gov, the CIA World Factbook and the US Census Bureau.

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CRAAP test news articles

Alongside websites, news articles are tricky as they can include biased information, be targeted to a specific audience or be poorly researched — but they can also be highly credible.

In the age of “fake news,” your evaluation of the source becomes especially important.

Ask yourself:

  • Who published the article? Is it a reputable news source?
  • Who is the author? Are they a credible journalist?
  • Are you certain the article is unbiased and impartial? The article should be fact-based, with the author refraining from expressing their own opinion or favouring one side of the story.
  • Does the article provide links to or evidence of credible primary source material?

Reputable news sources include The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post and the BBC. With these publications, you can trust that:

  • Thorough fact-checking has taken place
  • Journalists are held to high standards
  • The story is reported in an unbiased manner
  • Corrections are made if necessary

CRAAP test books

Generally, books should be more reliable sources than websites. However, as with websites, it is important to consider who the author or publisher of a book is and what their motives for publishing the information could be, as commercial interest could still be a motivator.

Ask yourself:

  • When was the book published? Could there be a more current book on the same topic?
  • Are there other editions of the same book? If so, it would be a very credible source, as the author/publisher are clearly motivated to keep the information current.
  • Who is the author? Are they an expert in the field? Search for their name and you can easily find this information.
  • Was the book published by a well-known publishing house? If not, it may not have undergone a thorough fact-checking or editing process, and may therefore be unreliable.
  • Is the purpose or intention of the book clear? Is it to inform and teach, or convince and persuade of a certain viewpoint?

CRAAP test journal articles

In general, journals can be considered a credible source for academic writing. However, there are some influential academic journals that are more reliable than others.

Ask yourself:

  • Who are the researchers? What are their affiliations?
  • Is the article read and approved by other researchers? (peer reviewed or refereed)
  • How many times has the journal article been cited?

Many academic search engines will provide helpful information, such as the number of times a work has been cited or author background.

On Google Scholar, you can see how many times each article or author has been cited, search for publications within a certain time frame, and view author background information such as a list of publications and co-authors.

Assessing the credibility of a journal through Google Scholar

Where to find journal articles

You can assess the quality of a journal by consulting the extensive and thorough Journal Quality List, which is regularly updated and free to download. You can also find journals you may not have checked on this list.

The ranking includes information from several years’ of the list’s history, with the most recent in the far right column. Be sure to read the legends at the beginning of the document to understand precisely what was considered when conducting each ranking.

Other well-known sources for finding journal articles online include JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Oxford Academic, EBSCO and Google Scholar.

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Courtney Gahan

Courtney has a Bachelor in Communication and a Master in Editing and Publishing. She has worked as a freelance writer and editor since 2013, and joined the Scribbr team as an editor in June 2017. She loves helping students and academics all over the world improve their writing (and learning about their research while doing so!).

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