Scribbr uses industry-standard citation styles from the Citation Styles Language project.
If you use several sources, you should refer to them frequently in your text. The basic rule is that it is better to refer to sources too much than too little.
Readers of your thesis should know at a glance if the information you are presenting is taken from a source.
You may find that you don’t have all of the information normally required for a citation, particularly if you are using internet sources. If this happens, just skip those fields in the APA Generator. The citation will be generated for you in the correct manner.
See examples of sources that are missing a title, publication date or author.
If you want to refer to a source that is included in another source, we recommend that you try to track down the original source. If you find it, you can then just cite it following the normal APA rules.
If you cannot find that original source, you should cite it through the source that mentioned it. This is called making an indirect reference or citing a secondary source.
Within your text, you then need to mention both authors.
Example: Driessen (in Swaen, 2014) uses three methods.
If one author has quoted another author, you need to add “as cited.”
Example: Driessen (in Swaen, 2014) describes three methods.
If you want to use a translation of a quote, the APA Style says that you should treat it as paraphrased text – not a quote.
In this case, follow the regular rules for paraphrasing and don’t use quotation marks. In your reference list, write the original title followed by the translated title in square brackets: [x].
Write the citations in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons and spaces.
Example: Several studies (Driessen & Anterveld, 2002; Swaen, 1997; Van Laak, 2011) show…
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