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How to write a literature review

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/literature-review/
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. Writing a literature review involves finding relevant publications (such as books and journal articles), critically analyzing them, and explaining what you found. There are five key steps: Sea...

ANOVA in R: A step-by-step guide

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/anova-in-r/
ANOVA is a statistical test for estimating how a quantitative dependent variable changes according to the levels of one or more categorical independent variables. ANOVA tests whether there is a difference in means of the groups at each level of the independent variable. The null hypothesis (H0) of the ANOVA is no difference in means, and the alternate hypothesis (Ha) is that the means are differen...

A step-by-step guide to literary analysis

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/literary-analysis/
Literary analysis means closely studying a text, interpreting its meanings, and exploring why the author made certain choices. It can be applied to novels, short stories, plays, poems, or any other form of literary writing. A literary analysis essay is not a rhetorical analysis, nor is it just a summary of the plot or a book review. Instead, it is a type of argumentative essay where you need to an...

How to write an APA methods section

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/methods-section/
The methods section of an APA style paper is where you report in detail how you performed your study. Research papers in the social and natural sciences often follow APA style. This article focuses on reporting quantitative research methods. In your APA methods section, you should report enough information to understand and replicate your study, including detailed information on the sample, measur...

How do you read a scientific article?

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/tips/how-do-you-read-a-scientific-article/
A scientific article in a journal or scientific publication, if you have little research experience, can seem to be a difficult and complicated text. However, most scientific articles have a clear structure to make reading them just that much easier. By reading a scientific article in a structured manner, you can better determine if it’s relevant and useful for your dissertation. In this (non-scie...

Type I and Type II errors

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/type-i-and-type-ii-errors/
In statistics, a Type I error is a false positive conclusion, while a Type II error is a false negative conclusion. Making a statistical decision always involves uncertainties, so the risks of making these errors are unavoidable in hypothesis testing. The probability of making a Type I error is the significance level, or alpha (α), while the probability of making a Type II error is beta (β). These...

A step-by-step guide to linear regression in R

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/linear-regression-in-r/
Linear regression is a regression model that uses a straight line to describe the relationship between variables. It finds the line of best fit through your data by searching for the value of the regression coefficient(s) that minimizes the total error of the model. There are two main types of linear regression: Simple linear regression uses only one independent variable Multiple linear regression...

An annotated essay example

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/example-essay-structure/
This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction, focused paragraphs, clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion. Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence, and each point is directly related to the thesis statement. As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and w...

Standard error in statistics

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/standard-error/
The standard error of the mean, or simply standard error, indicates how different the population mean is likely to be from a sample mean. It tells you how much the sample mean would vary if you were to repeat a study using new samples from within a single population. The standard error of the mean (SE or SEM) is the most commonly reported type of standard error. But you can also find the standard ...

Commas (,)

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/language-rules/commas/
Commas are used to split up different parts of a sentence, and when used correctly they bring clarity and flow to your writing. They’re probably the most common piece of punctuation in English, which means that they’re often the most misused. This article takes you through the most important comma rules and the most common mistakes. When to use a comma Incorrect Correct Introducing a sentence Addi...

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