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How do you read a scientific article?

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/tips/how-do-you-read-a-scientific-article/
A scientific article in a journal or scientific publication, if you have little research experience, can seem to be a difficult and complicated text. However, most scientific articles have a clear structure to make reading them just that much easier. By reading a scientific article in a structured manner, you can better determine if it’s relevant and useful for your dissertation. In this (non-scie...

A step-by-step guide to linear regression in R

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/linear-regression-in-r/
Linear regression is a regression model that uses a straight line to describe the relationship between variables. It finds the line of best fit through your data by searching for the value of the regression coefficient(s) that minimizes the total error of the model. There are two main types of linear regression: Simple linear regression uses only one independent variable Multiple linear regression...

APA references: the core components

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/reference-entry/
This article reflects the 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual. APA reference entries provide detailed information about a source. They’re listed on the reference page at the end of your paper and correspond to in-text citations in the body text. You can easily generate APA references (and in-text citations) with a citation generator, but it’s helpful to have a general understandin...

An annotated essay example

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/example-essay-structure/
This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction, focused paragraphs, clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion. Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence, and each point is directly related to the thesis statement. As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and w...

Commas (,)

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/language-rules/commas/
Commas are used to split up different parts of a sentence, and when used correctly they bring clarity and flow to your writing. They’re probably the most common piece of punctuation in English, which means that they’re often the most misused. This article takes you through the most important comma rules and the most common mistakes. When to use a comma Incorrect Correct Introducing a sentence Addi...

How to write a research methodology

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/methodology/
In your thesis or dissertation, you will have to discuss the methods you used to do your research. The methodology chapter explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of the research. It should include: The type of research you did How you collected your data How you analyzed your data Any tools or materials you used in the research Your rati...

Measures of variability

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/variability/
Variability describes how far apart data points lie from each other and from the center of a distribution. Along with measures of central tendency, measures of variability give you descriptive statistics that summarize your data. Variability is also referred to as spread, scatter or dispersion. It is most commonly measured with the following: Range: the difference between the highest and lowest va...

How to find the interquartile range

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/interquartile-range/
In descriptive statistics, the interquartile range tells you the spread of the middle half of your distribution. Quartiles segment any distribution that’s ordered from low to high into four equal parts. The interquartile range (IQR) contains the second and third quartiles, or the middle half of your data set. Whereas the range gives you the spread of the whole data set, the interquartile range giv...

An introduction to descriptive statistics

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/descriptive-statistics/
Descriptive statistics summarize and organize characteristics of a data set. A data set is a collection of responses or observations from a sample or entire population. In quantitative research, after collecting data, the first step of data analysis is to describe characteristics of the responses, such as the average of one variable (e.g., age), or the relation between two variables (e.g., age and...

The standard normal distribution

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/standard-normal-distribution/
The standard normal distribution, also called the z -distribution, is a special normal distribution where the mean is 0 and the standard deviation is 1. Any normal distribution can be standardized by converting its values into z-scores. Z-scores tell you how many standard deviations from the mean each value lies. Converting a normal distribution into a z-distribution allows you to calculate the pr...

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