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Creating APA reference entries

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/reference-entry/
This article reflects the 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual. APA reference entries provide detailed information about a source. They’re listed on the reference page at the end of your paper and correspond to in-text citations in the body text. You can easily generate APA references (and in-text citations) with a citation generator, but it’s helpful to have a general understandin...

How to write a research methodology

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/methodology/
In your thesis or dissertation, you will have to discuss the methods you used to do your research. The methodology chapter explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of the research. It should include: The type of research you did How you collected your data How you analyzed your data Any tools or materials you used in the research Your rati...

An introduction to multistage sampling

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/multistage-sampling/
In multistage sampling, or multistage cluster sampling, you draw a sample from a population using smaller and smaller groups (units) at each stage. It’s often used to collect data from a large, geographically spread group of people in national surveys. Single-stage vs multistage sampling In single-stage sampling, you divide a population into units (e.g., households or individuals) and select a sam...

Measures of variability

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/variability/
Variability describes how far apart data points lie from each other and from the center of a distribution. Along with measures of central tendency, measures of variability give you descriptive statistics that summarize your data. Variability is also referred to as spread, scatter or dispersion. It is most commonly measured with the following: Range: the difference between the highest and lowest va...

How to find the interquartile range

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/interquartile-range/
In descriptive statistics, the interquartile range tells you the spread of the middle half of your distribution. Quartiles segment any distribution that’s ordered from low to high into four equal parts. The interquartile range (IQR) contains the second and third quartiles, or the middle half of your data set. Whereas the range gives you the spread of the whole data set, the interquartile range giv...

The standard normal distribution

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/standard-normal-distribution/
The standard normal distribution, also called the z-distribution, is a special normal distribution where the mean is 0 and the standard deviation is 1. Any normal distribution can be standardized by converting its values into z-scores. Z-scores tell you how many standard deviations from the mean each value lies. Converting a normal distribution into a z-distribution allows you to calculate the pro...

An introduction to descriptive statistics

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/descriptive-statistics/
Descriptive statistics summarize and organize characteristics of a data set. A data set is a collection of responses or observations from a sample or entire population. In quantitative research, after collecting data, the first step of statistical analysis is to describe characteristics of the responses, such as the average of one variable (e.g., age), or the relation between two variables (e.g., ...

How to structure an essay: Templates and tips

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/essay-structure/
The basic structure of an essay always consists of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. But for many students, the most difficult part of structuring an essay is deciding how to organize information within the body. This article provides useful templates and tips to help you outline your essay, make decisions about your structure, and organize your text logically. The basics of essay structu...

Subject-verb agreement

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/language-rules/subject-verb-agreement/
The subject of a sentence should always match the verb describing its action. This helps your reader understand who or what is doing something and makes your writing easier to read. First, identify the subject (the person or thing doing the action) and the verb (the action word) in a sentence. If the subject is singular, the verb describing its action should be singular. If the subject is plural, ...

An introduction to the Akaike information criterion

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/akaike-information-criterion/
The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is a mathematical method for evaluating how well a model fits the data it was generated from. In statistics, AIC is used to compare different possible models and determine which one is the best fit for the data. AIC is calculated from: the number of independent variables used to build the model. the maximum likelihood estimate of the model (how well the model...

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