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Verb tenses in academic writing

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/language-rules/tenses/
Tense communicates an event’s location in time. The different tenses are identified by their associated verb forms. There are three main tenses: past, present, and future. In English, each of these tenses can take four main aspects: simple, perfect, continuous (also known as progressive), and perfect continuous. The perfect aspect is formed using the verb to have, while the continuous aspect is fo...

Citing sources with Chicago style footnotes

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/chicago-style/footnotes/
The notes and bibliography style is one of two citation options provided by the Chicago Manual of Style. Each time a source is quoted or paraphrased, a superscript number is placed in the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote containing details of the source. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the text. This is an example o...

Reliability vs validity: what’s the difference?

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/reliability-vs-validity/
Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method, technique or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. It’s important to consider reliability and validity when you are creating your research design, planning your methods, and writing up your results, e...

Understanding normal distributions

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/normal-distribution/
In a normal distribution, data is symmetrically distributed with no skew. When plotted on a graph, the data follows a bell shape, with most values clustering around a central region and tapering off as they go further away from the center. Normal distributions are also called Gaussian distributions or bell curves because of their shape. Why do normal distributions matter? All kinds of variables in...

An introduction to the two-way ANOVA

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/two-way-anova/
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is a statistical test used to analyze the difference between the means of more than two groups. A two-way ANOVA is used to estimate how the mean of a quantitative variable changes according to the levels of two categorical variables. Use a two-way ANOVA when you want to know how two independent variables, in combination, affect a dependent variable. ExampleYou are rese...

Organizational templates for academic essays

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/organizational-templates-academic-essays/
This article samples some common structures for academic essays and gives some tips for executing each of these structures. It does not present a comprehensive list of every possible structure, but gives you a good idea of some of the most common ones. Common structures for academic essays: Compare and contrast Chronological or cause-and-effect General to specific Problems-methods-solutions Compar...

The MLA author element

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/mla/authors/
According to MLA citation style (eighth edition), the author or creator of a source appears first in the reference in the Works Cited list, and usually also in the in-text citation. David, Miriam E. Reclaiming Feminism: Challenging Everyday Misogyny. 1st ed., Bristol University Press, 2016. In a recent study …(Miriam 8) The author element is formatted differently when a source has multiple authors...

A guide to ethnography

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/ethnography/
Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that involves immersing yourself in a particular community or organization to observe their behavior and interactions up close. The word “ethnography” also refers to the written report of the research that the ethnographer produces afterwards. Ethnography is a flexible research method that allows you to gain a deep understanding of a group’s shared cul...

Using first-person pronouns in academic writing

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/first-person-pronouns/
Guidelines for the use of first-person pronouns (“I”, “we”, “my,”and so forth) in academic writing vary according to discipline, and there are intra-disciplinary differences as well. Experts are divided on the subject of first-person pronoun use in scientific writing, which used to avoid first-person pronouns in most cases. Although the matter is by no means settled, many writing experts over the...

How to do survey research

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/survey-research/
Survey research means collecting information about a group of people by asking them questions and analyzing the results. To conduct an effective survey, follow these six steps: Determine who will participate in the survey Decide the type of survey (mail, online, or in-person) Design the survey questions and layout Distribute the survey Analyze the responses Write up the results Surveys are a flexi...

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