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Verb tenses in academic writing

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/language-rules/tenses/
Tense communicates an event’s location in time. The different tenses are identified by their associated verb forms. There are three main tenses: past, present, and future. In English, each of these tenses can take four main aspects: simple, perfect, continuous (also known as progressive), and perfect continuous. The perfect aspect is formed using the verb to have, while the continuous aspect is fo...

Citing sources with Chicago style footnotes

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/chicago-style/footnotes/
The notes and bibliography style is one of two citation options provided by the Chicago Manual of Style. Each time a source is quoted or paraphrased, a superscript number is placed in the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote containing details of the source. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the text. This is an example o...

Reliability vs validity: what’s the difference?

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/reliability-vs-validity/
Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method, technique or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. It’s important to consider reliability and validity when you are creating your research design, planning your methods, and writing up your results, e...

How to write a conclusion paragraph

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/conclusion/
The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay. A strong conclusion aims to: Tie together the essay’s main points Show why your argument matters Leave the reader with a strong impression Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up. This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example, w...

An introduction to the two-way ANOVA

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/two-way-anova/
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is a statistical test used to analyze the difference between the means of more than two groups. A two-way ANOVA is used to estimate how the mean of a quantitative variable changes according to the levels of two categorical variables. Use a two-way ANOVA when you want to know how two independent variables, in combination, affect a dependent variable. ExampleYou are rese...

Understanding normal distributions

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/normal-distribution/
In a normal distribution, data is symmetrically distributed with no skew. When plotted on a graph, the data follows a bell shape, with most values clustering around a central region and tapering off as they go further away from the center. Normal distributions are also called Gaussian distributions or bell curves because of their shape. Why do normal distributions matter? All kinds of variables in...

How to write an essay introduction

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/introduction/
A good introduction paragraph is an essential part of any academic essay. It sets up your argument and tells the reader what to expect. The main goals of an introduction are to: Catch your reader’s attention. Give background on your topic. Present your thesis—the central point of your essay. This introduction example is taken from our interactive essay example on the history of Braille. Essay intr...

How to report numbers and statistics in APA style

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/numbers-and-statistics/
The APA style guide is commonly used for reporting research results in the social and natural sciences. This article walks you through APA style standards for reporting statistics in academic writing. Statistical analysis involves gathering and testing quantitative data to make inferences about the world. A statistic is any number that describes a sample: it can be a proportion, a range, or a meas...

How to do survey research

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/survey-research/
Survey research means collecting information about a group of people by asking them questions and analyzing the results. To conduct an effective survey, follow these six steps: Determine who will participate in the survey Decide the type of survey (mail, online, or in-person) Design the survey questions and layout Distribute the survey Analyze the responses Write up the results Surveys are a flexi...

A guide to ethnography

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/ethnography/
Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that involves immersing yourself in a particular community or organization to observe their behavior and interactions up close. The word “ethnography” also refers to the written report of the research that the ethnographer produces afterwards. Ethnography is a flexible research method that allows you to gain a deep understanding of a group’s shared cul...

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