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How do you determine the quality of a journal article?

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/tips/how-do-you-determine-the-quality-of-a-journal-article/
In the theoretical framework of your thesis, you support the research that you want to perform by means of a literature review. Here, you are looking for earlier research about your subject. These studies are often published in the form of scientific articles in journals (scientific publications). Why is good quality important? The better the quality of the articles that you use in the literature...

How to write an essay introduction

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/introduction/
A good introduction paragraph is both engaging and informative. The main goals of your introduction are to: Catch your reader’s attention. Give background on your topic. Present your thesis—the central point of your essay. This introduction example is taken from our interactive essay example on the history of Braille. Essay introduction example The invention of Braille marked a major turning point...

How to write an abstract

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/
An abstract is a short summary of a longer work (such as a dissertation or research paper). The abstract concisely reports the aims and outcomes of your research so that readers know exactly what the paper is about. Write the abstract at the very end, when you’ve completed the rest of the text. There are four things you need to include: Your research problem and objectives Your methods Your key re...

How to summarize an article

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/how-to-summarize/
Summarizing means giving a concise overview of an article’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text. Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or analyzing the source—you should simply provide a clear, objective, accurate account of the most important information and ideas, without copying any text from the original and without missing any of the...

Types of reliability and how to measure them

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/types-of-reliability/
When you do quantitative research, you have to consider the reliability and validity of your research methods and instruments of measurement. Reliability tells you how consistently a method measures something. When you apply the same method to the same sample under the same conditions, you should get the same results. If not, the method of measurement may be unreliable. There are four main types o...

An introduction to the one-way ANOVA

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/one-way-anova/
ANOVA, which stands for Analysis of Variance, is a statistical test used to analyze the difference between the means of more than two groups. A one-way ANOVA uses one independent variable, while a two-way ANOVA uses two independent variables. One-way ANOVA exampleAs a crop researcher, you want to test the effect of three different fertilizer mixtures on crop yield. You can use a one-way ANOVA to f...

Citing sources in Chicago author-date style

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/chicago-style/author-date/
The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for two styles of source citation: notes and bibliography and author-date. Author-date style is the preferred option in the sciences and social sciences. In author-date style, an in-text citation consists of the author’s name, the publication year, and (if relevant) a page number. Each citation must correspond to an entry in the reference list at the...

How to paraphrase sources

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/how-to-paraphrase/
Paraphrasing means formulating someone else’s ideas in your own words. To paraphrase a source, you have to rewrite a passage without changing the meaning of the original text. Paraphrasing is an alternative to quoting, where you copy someone’s exact words and put them in quotation marks. In academic writing, it’s usually better to paraphrase instead of quoting, because it shows that you have under...

MLA titles: formatting and capitalization rules

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/mla/titles/
In MLA style, source titles appear either in italics or in quotation marks: Italicize the title of a self-contained whole (e.g. a book, film, journal, or website). Use quotation marks around the title if it is part of a larger work (e.g. a chapter of a book, an article in a journal, or a page on a website). All major words in a title are capitalized. The same format is used in Works Cited list and...

How to find the median

[Article] https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/median/
The median is the value that’s exactly in the middle of a data set when it is ordered. It’s a measure of central tendency that separates the lowest 50% from the highest 50% of values. The steps for finding the median differ depending on whether you have an odd or an even number of data points. If there are two numbers in the middle of a data set, their mean is the median. The median is usually use...

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