Add sources

APA Generator

Restore backup

Internet source

Choose the type of online source you want to cite. If the source type is not in the drop down list, choose ‘Other’. You will need to fill in the source type yourself.

The type of the online source should be mentioned in brackets (except for regular websites).

Sometimes you are not able to find the title of a source.

If this is the case check 'Title not available?' and write a short description of the source instead of the title.

Use a capital letter for the first letter of the title, the subtitle and any names.

Examples: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

Check ‘Can the source be changed?’ if the contents of the source change often.

For example, a Wikipedia article can be changed after you have retrieved it.

Fill in the date on which you have retrieved the source.

Clear form
Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the APA style

Book or bundle

Use a capital letter for the first letter of the title, the subtitle and any names.

Examples: Sharing private information online: The mediator effect of social exchange

Only fill in the page numbers if the source is a chapter from a bundle.

Publication type

Sometimes only a online version of a book or bundle can be found.

Use the DOI if you have used a digital version. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

Example DOI: doi:10.1037 /1089-2680.10.4.377

Can’t find the DOI? Use the URL of the website where you have found the journal article.

If you have used the printed version of a book, you can leave the DOI and URL empty. However, you should fill in the name, country and city of the publisher.

To keep the publisher’s name brief remove the words ‘Publishers’, ‘Publishing’, ‘Co.’ and ‘Inc.’.

Don’t remove ‘Press’ or ‘Books’ if it is in the publisher’s name.

This can usually be found on the second page of the book.

Fill in the abbreviation of the state if the book is published in the United States.

Leave the state empty if the publisher is a university with the state in its name.

Example of a university with the state in its name: University of California Press

Leave empty if the year is unknown.

Fill in the edition of the book.

Leave empty if it is the first edition.

Rev. ed.
1st ed.
2nd ed.
3rd ed.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Examples: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Clear form
Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the APA style

Journal article

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle.

Examples: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

Capitalize the first letter of the first and all main words. The subtitle is not mentioned.

Examples: Journal of Marketing Research

If an article is accepted for publication, but is not yet published, you should mark the check box ‘Not published yet?’

The issue number is required only when each issue of the journal resets page numbering, giving the first page the number 1.

Only when the page numbering of the issue starts with page 1 should you fill in the issue number.

Publication type

Journals are often published both in digital and printed format.

Use the DOI if you have used a digital version of the journal. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

Example DOI: doi:10.1037 /1089-2680.10.4.377

Can’t find the DOI? Use the URL of the website where you have found the journal article.

If you have used the printed version of the journal you can leave the DOI and URL inputs empty.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Examples: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Clear form
Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the APA style

Article from newspaper or magazine

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle.

Examples: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

For newspaper and magazine articles you also fill in the year, month and (optionally) day of publication.

Page numbers are not mandatory for online publications.

Publication type

Newspaper and magazines are often published on print as well as online.

Did you check the digital version? Fill in the url.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Examples: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Clear form
Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the APA style

Report

Also generate references for annual reports, theses, papers, dissertations here.

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle.

Examples: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

For most sources you should leave this field empty.

The report number should be mentioned between parentheses after the title.

Examples: Deming, D. (2008). Lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

Examples: Riediger, C. (2009). Psycho-analytical defense mechanisms (Master’s thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Austria). Retrieved from http://example.com/dipl/2009/AC05040439.pdf

Parentheses  are added automatically.

Usually reports are published only digitally.

Did you use a printed version of the report? Search for the digital version on the internet or fill in the printed version at the tab ‘Book’.

Clear form
Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the APA style

Conference papers/proceedings

Use this option if the conference paper is available only online (e.g. as pdf).

For example, proceedings from a yearly conference.

A conference paper from a printed bundle of conference proceedings.

The whole publication instead of a single paper in the publication.

Use form at 'Journal' tab for this type of conference paper

Treat a conference paper the same as a journal if proceedings are published on a regular basis. Use the form at the 'Journal' tab to generate this conference paper's reference.

Fill in the name of the conference in the field for journal title.

Fill in the title of the conference bundle.

Examples: Proceedings of the Medtronic Forum for Neuroscience and Neuro-Technology

Use a capital letter for the first letter of the title, the subtitle and any names.

Examples: Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome: A movement disorder

Fill in the full name of the conference.

Examples: Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems

Fill in the city where the conference took place.

Fill in the country where the conference took place.

Fill in the state if the conference took place in the Unites States

Only fill in the page numbers if the source is a chapter from a bundle.

Publication type

Sometimes a conference paper is only available in a digital format.

Use the DOI if you have used a digital version. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

Example DOI: doi:10.1037 /1089-2680.10.4.377

Can’t find the DOI? Fill in the URL of the website.

To keep the publisher’s name brief remove the words ‘Publishers’, ‘Publishing’, ‘Co.’ and ‘Inc.’.

Don’t remove ‘Press’ or ‘Books’ if it is in the publisher’s name.

Fill in the publisher's city.

This can usually be found on the second page of the book.

Fill in the abbreviation of the state if the book is published in the United States.

Leave the state empty if the publisher is a university with the state in its name.

Example of a university with the state in its name: University of California Press

Leave empty if the year is unknown.

Fill in the edition of the book.

Leave empty if it is the first edition.

Rev. ed.
1st ed.
2nd ed.
3rd ed.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Examples: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Clear form
Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the APA style

Which tab should I use?

  1. Click on the source you want to use
  2. The correct tab will open automatically.
  3. Fill in all of the required fields.
AppsBlendle-article/ Newspaper article (internet)BookCommercial Radio/TVConference paperDictionaryDissertation of another studentE-bookFacebookForum postInternal documents (Intranet)Internet articleInterviewJournalLecture slides/ handoutsMovie/DocumentaryNewspaper article (offline)OrationPatentPDF-documentPersonal communicationPhoto/ ImagePress releaseRadio/Tv-showReportSoftwareStatistic databaseTwitterWikipediaYouTubeScientific (journal) article for publicationSurvey

Frequently asked questions about the APA style

Where do I put citations in my text?

If you use several sources, you should refer to them frequently in your text. The basic rule is that it is better to refer to sources too much than too little.

Readers of your thesis should know at a glance if the information you are presenting is taken from a source.

See examples

What do I do if information is missing?

You may find that you don’t have all of the information normally required for a citation, particularly if you are using internet sources. If this happens, just skip those fields in the APA Generator. The citation will be generated for you in the correct manner.

See examples of sources that are missing a title, publication date or author.

What do I do with a source within a source (indirect reference)?

If you want to refer to a source that is included in another source, we recommend that you try to track down the original source. If you find it, you can then just cite it following the normal APA rules.

If you cannot find that original source, you should cite it through the source that mentioned it. This is called making an indirect reference or citing a secondary source.

Within your text, you then need to mention both authors.

Example: Driessen (in Swaen, 2014) uses three methods.

If one author has quoted another author, you need to add “as cited.”

Example: Driessen (in Swaen, 2014) describes three methods.

Learn more

What do I do with an intranet source?

We recommend treating intranet sources as normal internet sources in your thesis.

Include a brief citation in the text and list the source in your reference list as well. You should also add a footnote that indicates that the source is not available publicly.

For more a complete answer, check out our full article on intranet sources.

Can I translate a quote from a source?

If you want to use a translation of a quote, the APA Style says that you should treat it as paraphrased text – not a quote.

In this case, follow the regular rules for paraphrasing and don’t use quotation marks. In your reference list, write the original title followed by the translated title in square brackets: [x].

Learn more

How do I cite several publications from different authors?

Write the citations in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons and spaces.

Example: Several studies (Driessen & Anterveld, 2002; Swaen, 1997; Van Laak, 2011) show…

I have another question about the APA Generator…

Submit your question using our feedback form and we will try to get back to you within a day.

Examples references in the text

Warning! Use this citation if you've already used the above citation in your document.

How can Scribbr help me?

Whether we’re editing dissertations, detecting plagiarism, generating APA citations or writing useful Knowledge Base articles, our aim is to help students graduate.

We believe that every student should have the right tools for academic success. We pave the way to your academic degree.