What is the difference between footnotes and endnotes?
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the bibliography.
Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when:
When you’re referring to the overall argument or general content of a source, it’s unnecessary to include page numbers.
When a source has four or more authors, your in-text citation or footnote should give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). This makes your citations more concise.
In your bibliography or reference list, when a source has more than 10 authors, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
Turabian style is a version of Chicago style designed specifically for students and researchers. It follows most Chicago conventions, but also adds extra guidelines for formatting research papers, theses and dissertations.
More information can be found in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, now in its ninth edition.
Both present the exact same information – the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:
There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as an annotated bibliography.
Chicago format doesn’t require you to use any specific font, as long as you choose something readable. A good standard choice is 12 pt Times New Roman.
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