How to cite a website in Chicago style
|Full note||1. Author first name last name, “Page Title,” Website Name, Month Day, Year, URL.|
|Short note||2. Author last name, “Shortened Page Title.”|
|Bibliography||Author last name, first name. “Page Title.” Website Name. Month Day, Year. URL.|
Dates in Chicago website citations
Web sources should generally be cited with their specific publication date (month, day, and year).
Some web sources list a revision date instead of (or in addition to) the original publication date. When a date of last revision or update is listed, use this instead, preceded by the words “Last modified.”
|Full note||1. Shane Bryson, “Word Order Rules in English,” Scribbr, last modified February 20, 2019, https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/word-order-rules-in-english/.|
|Short note||2. Bryson, “Word Order Rules.”|
|Bibliography||Bryson, Shane. “Word Order Rules in English.” Scribbr. Last modified February 20, 2019. https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/word-order-rules-in-english/.|
When both are available and you think it’s important for the reader to know, you can include both the original publication date and the revision date.
|Full note||1. Shane Bryson, “Word Order Rules in English,” Scribbr, April 21, 2015, last modified February 20, 2019, https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/word-order-rules-in-english/.|
|Short note||2. Bryson, “Word Order Rules.”|
|Bibliography||Bryson, Shane. “Word Order Rules in English.” Scribbr. April 21, 2015. Last modified February 20, 2019. https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/word-order-rules-in-english/.|
Web sources with no author
Web content often doesn’t list an individual author.
In a full note citation, begin with the name of the article. In short notes and in the bibliography entry, begin with the name of the organization that published the source. If the organization’s name is the same as the website name, don’t repeat it later in the citation.
|Full note||1. “Climate Change Is Affecting the Way Europe Floods, Experts Warn,” University of Glasgow, October 25, 2019, https://www.gla.ac.uk/news/headline_681850_en.html.|
|Short note||2. University of Glasgow, “Climate Change.”|
|Bibliography||University of Glasgow. “Climate Change Is Affecting the Way Europe Floods, Experts Warn.” October 25, 2019. https://www.gla.ac.uk/news/headline_681850_en.html.|
Web sources with no date
Where neither a publication date nor a revision date is available, include the date when you accessed the page instead. Only use this when there are no other options.
|Full note||1. “Strategic Themes,” Utrecht University, accessed June 15, 2019, https://www.uu.nl/en/research/profile/strategic-themes.|
|Short note||2. Utrecht University, “Strategic Themes.”|
|Bibliography||Utrecht University. “Strategic Themes.” Accessed June 15, 2019. https://www.uu.nl/en/research/profile/strategic-themes.|
Online articles and blogs
To cite an article from an online version of a print newspaper or magazine, you include the exact same information as you would for the print version, but with the addition of a URL. Blog posts are cited in a similar format.
Newspaper and magazine articles
To cite an online newspaper or magazine article, put the publication title in italics, and add a URL at the end:
|Full note||1. Sylvia Hui, ““Non-Essential Retailers Reopening Across England After Coronavirus Lockdown,” Time, June 15, 2020, https://time.com/5853613/england-coronavirus-reopening-nonessential-retail/.|
|Short note||2. Hui, “Retailers Reopening.”|
|Bibliography||Hui, Sylvia. “Non-Essential Retailers Reopening Across England After Coronavirus
Lockdown.” Time, June 15, 2020. https://time.com/5853613/england-coronavirus-reopening-nonessential-retail/.
Blogs are cited in the same format as newspapers, with the word “blog” added in parentheses (unless the name already contains the word “blog”).
If the blog is part of a larger publication, the title of the publication appears, also italicized.
|Full note||1. William Germano, “Futurist Shock,” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017, https://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.|
|Short note||2. Germano, “Futurist Shock.”|
|Bibliography||Germano, William. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, June 15, 2020. https://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.|
Citing social media
Since most social media posts are untitled, use the beginning of the post (up to 160 characters) in place of the title. If the post is less than 160 characters long, you can quote the whole thing.
If the content was posted under a username or screen name, include it in parentheses after the real name of the poster. If a user’s real name is unknown, the username appears as the author.
|Full note||1. Obama, Barack (@BarackObama), “It’s World Health Day, and we owe a profound debt of gratitude to all our medical professionals,” Twitter, April 7, 2020, https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1247555328365023238.|
|Short note||2. Obama, “World Health Day.”|
|Bibliography||Obama, Barack (@BarackObama). “It’s World Health Day, and we owe a profound debt of gratitude to all our medical professionals.” Twitter, April 7, 2020. https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1247555328365023238.|
Citing private web content
Private digital content – emails, text messages, direct messages, but also content in private Facebook groups or other webpages not accessible to everyone – should be cited as personal communications.
Citations of personal communications do not follow a standard format; rather, you should just describe where the source you’re citing comes from:
1. James Smith, Twitter direct message to author, September 19, 2018.
Website citations in Chicago author-date style
To cite a website in Chicago author-date style, websites are cited using in-text citations corresponding to entries in your reference list. A reference list entry differs from a bibliography entry only in the placement of the year.
Examples of author-date website citations and references are shown in the tabs below.
|In-text citation||(Caulfield 2020)|
|Reference list||Caulfield, Jack. 2020. “A Step-by-Step Guide to the Writing Process.” Scribbr. April 24, 2020. https://www.scribbr.com/academic-writing/writing-process/.|
|In-text citation||(University of Glasgow 2019)|
|Reference list||University of Glasgow. 2019. “Climate Change is Affecting the Way Europe Floods, Experts Warn.” October 25, 2019. https://www.gla.ac.uk/news/headline_681850_en.html.|
|In-text citation||(Utrecht University, n.d.)|
|Reference list||Utrecht University. n.d. “Strategic Themes.” Accessed June 15, 2019. https://www.uu.nl/en/research/profile/strategic-themes.|
|In-text citation||(Hui 2020)|
|Reference list||Hui, Sylvia. 2020. “Non-Essential Retailers Reopening Across England After Coronavirus Lockdown.” Time, June 15, 2020. https://time.com/5853613/england-coronavirus-reopening-nonessential-retail/.|
|In-text citation||(Germano 2015)|
|Reference list||Germano, Willian. 2015. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017. https://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.|
|In-text citation||(Obama 2020)|
|Reference list||Obama, Barack. 2020. “It’s World Health Day, and we owe a profound debt of gratitude to all our medical professionals.” Twitter, April 7, 2020. https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1247555328365023238.|