Best AI Detector | Free & Premium Tools Tested

AI detectors are tools designed to detect when a text was generated by an AI writing tool like ChatGPT. AI content may look convincingly human in some cases, but these tools aim to provide a way of checking for it. We’ve investigated just how accurate they really are.

To do so, we used a selection of testing texts including fully ChatGPT-generated texts, mixed AI-and-human texts, fully human texts, and texts modified by paraphrasing tools. We ran all these texts through nine different AI detectors to see how accurately each tool labeled them.

Our research indicates that if you’re willing to pay, the most accurate AI detector available right now is Winston AI, which identified 84% of our texts correctly. If you don’t want to pay, Sapling is the best choice: it’s totally free and has 68% accuracy, the highest score among free tools.

Best AI detectors in 2023
Tool Accuracy False positives Free? Star rating
1. Winston AI 84% 0 4.2
2. Originality.AI 76% 1 3.7
3. Sapling 68% 0 3.4
4. CopyLeaks 66% 0 3.3
5. GPT-2 Output Detector 58% 0 2.9
6. CrossPlag 58% 0 2.9
7. GPTZero 52% 1 2.5
8. Writer 38% 0 1.9
9. AI Text Classifier (OpenAI) 38% 1 1.8
To understand where these scores come from, you can read more about our methodology below. You may also be interested in our comparison of the best plagiarism checkers.

Continue reading: Best AI Detector | Free & Premium Tools Tested

ChatGPT Citations | Formats & Examples

ChatGPT, the popular AI language model, is quite new. Educational institutions and style guides are still working out their policies on when and how content from the tool can be used and cited in academic writing.

Guidelines are still evolving, so we provide formats based on what the different style guides have said about the issue so far. This article will be updated over time to reflect the latest guidelines as different authorities develop their recommendations.

We also discuss when you should cite ChatGPT and whether ChatGPT itself can cite sources.

Universities and other institutions are still developing their stances on how ChatGPT and similar tools may be used. Always follow your institution’s guidelines over any suggestions you read online. Check out our guide to current university policies on AI writing for more information.

Continue reading: ChatGPT Citations | Formats & Examples

Glossary of AI Terms | Acronyms & Terminology

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a hotly discussed topic right now—especially with the release of AI writing tools like ChatGPT. It’s a field that more and more people are interested in, but it involves a lot of terminology that can be intimidating to a non-expert.

To help you get to grips with various commonly used AI terms, we’ve prepared a glossary covering a wide variety of acronyms, technical language, and big names in the world of AI.

Check the table below for a quick definition of the term you’re interested in, and click on the term to navigate to a more in-depth explanation below.

Glossary of AI terms
Algorithm: A finite sequence of instructions followed by a computer system Alignment: The extent to which an AI’s goals are in line with its creators’ goals
AlphaGo: An AI system that plays Go Anthropomorphism: Attribution of human traits to non-human entities
Artificial general intelligence (AGI): AI that surpasses human intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI): Intelligence demonstrated by machines
AI detector: A tool designed to detect when a text was AI-generated AI safety: The study of how AI can be developed and used safely
AI writing: Use of AI technology to produce or edit text (e.g., chatbots, paraphrasing tools) Automation: Handling a process with machines or software so that less human input is needed
Autonomous: Able to perform tasks without human input Bard: A chatbot developed by Google, released in March 2023
Bias: The assumptions that an AI makes to simplify its tasks Big data: Very large datasets that normal data-processing software can’t handle
Bing Chat: A chatbot feature integrated into Bing, released in February 2023 Burstiness: A measurement of variation in sentence structure and length
CAPTCHA: A test used online to ensure that the user is human Chatbot: A software application that mimics human conversation, usually through text
ChatGPT: A chatbot released by OpenAI in November 2022 Chinese room: A philosophical thought experiment about AI
Computer: A machine that can automatically perform the tasks it is programmed for DALL-E: An AI image generator released by OpenAI in January 2021
Deep Blue: An AI system that plays chess Deepfake: AI-generated images and videos designed to look real
Deep learning: A form of machine learning based on neural networks ELIZA: An early chatbot developed in the 1960s
Emergent behavior: Complex behavior resulting from basic processes Generative AI: AI systems that generate output in response to prompts
Generative pre-trained transformer (GPT): A type of LLM used in ChatGPT and other AI applications Hallucination: Tendency of AI chatbots to confidently present false information
Large language model (LLM): A neural net trained on large amounts of text to imitate human language Machine learning (ML): The study of how AI acquires knowledge from training data
Machine translation: Use of software to translate text between languages Midjourney: An AI image generator released in July 2022
Natural language processing (NLP): The study of interaction between computers and human language Neural net(work): Computer systems designed to mimic brain structures
OpenAI: A leading AI company that developed ChatGPT and DALL-E Parameter: A variable in an AI system that it uses to make predictions
Paraphrasing tool: An AI writing tool that automatically rephrases the text you type into it Perplexity: A measure of how unpredictable a text is
Plagiarism: Unacknowledged use of the words or ideas of others Programming: The process of giving instructions to a computer (using computer code)
Prompt: The input from the user to which the AI system responds QuillBotA company offering a popular  paraphrasing tool and other AI writing tools
Reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF): Training method used to fine-tune GPT model responses Robot: Machine capable of carrying out physical actions automatically
Temperature: The level of randomness in an LLM’s output Training data: The dataset that was used to train an AI system
Token: The basic unit of text (a word or part of a word) processed by LLMs Turing test: A test of a machine’s ability to display human intelligence

Continue reading: Glossary of AI Terms | Acronyms & Terminology

How Do AI Detectors Work? | Methods & Reliability

AI detectors (also called AI writing detectors or AI content detectors) are tools designed to detect when a text was partially or entirely generated by artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as ChatGPT.

AI detectors may be used to detect when a piece of writing is likely to have been generated by AI. This is useful, for example, to educators who want to check that their students are doing their own writing or moderators trying to remove fake product reviews and other spam content.

However, these tools are quite new and experimental, and they’re generally considered somewhat unreliable for now. Below, we explain how they work, how reliable they really are, and how they’re being used.

Universities and other institutions are still developing their stances on how ChatGPT and similar tools may be used. Always follow your institution’s guidelines over any suggestions you read online. Check out our guide to current university policies on AI writing for more information.

You may also be interested in our research into the best AI detectors.

Continue reading: How Do AI Detectors Work? | Methods & Reliability

What Is ChatGPT? | Everything You Need to Know

ChatGPT is a chatbot powered by artificial intelligence (AI). It works like any chatbot: users type in text-based prompts, and it responds to them with its own text. What makes it unique is how fluent, extensive, and human-sounding its answers are, as well as the wide variety of topics it can discuss.

ChatGPT was developed by a company called OpenAI. It was released in November 2022. It’s currently free to use, although it was released as a “research preview,” so it may not be free forever.

It can be used for a wide variety of tasks, including writing, brainstorming, researching, coding, and feedbacking existing text. ChatGPT’s ability to quickly generate large amounts of convincing text has significant implications in a variety of areas, such as academia, business, politics, and the internet.

Universities and other institutions are still developing their stances on how ChatGPT and similar tools may be used. Always follow your institution’s guidelines over any suggestions you read online. Check out our guide to current university policies on AI writing for more information.

Continue reading: What Is ChatGPT? | Everything You Need to Know

University Policies on AI Writing Tools | Overview & List

Educators are in the process of working out how to respond to AI writing tools like ChatGPT, and many students (and instructors) are unsure exactly what is allowed right now.

Our research into the current guidelines of 100 top universities indicates that most don’t have definitive guidelines yet and that individual instructors ultimately decide what’s allowed in their classes. Specifically, we found four responses to AI writing tools from universities:

  • At 29% of universities, there seem to be no clear guidance or policy so far.
  • At 49% of universities, individual instructors decide their own policy for now.
  • At 18% of universities, the tools are banned by default unless instructors say otherwise.
  • At 4% of universities, the tools are allowed (with citation) unless instructors prohibit them.

US university policies on AI writing, May 29

See data (Google Sheet)

If you’re unsure what is allowed in your case, always check your syllabus or ask your instructor directly. Read on for a general summary of university stances so far and a table linking to specific guidance from 100 top universities.

We plan to update this article periodically to reflect the current state of the conversation as more universities develop, publish, and rework their policies. Check back in the future if the information you’re looking for isn’t here yet.

If you’re a student at or representative of an educational institution, we’d love to hear about how your institution is responding to AI writing tools so far—especially if you can share more up-to-date guidelines from your university. You can reach us at [email protected].

Continue reading: University Policies on AI Writing Tools | Overview & List

What Is a Plural Noun? | Examples, Rules & Exceptions

A plural noun is a noun that refers to more than one of something (as opposed to a singular noun, which refers to just one). Like singular nouns, they may refer to people, animals, things, concepts, or places.

Plural nouns are normally formed by adding -s to the singular noun (e.g., the singular “cat” becomes the plural “cats”). With certain nouns, you need to add or change some of the other letters. The rules are explained in the table below.

There are also some irregular plurals that don’t end in -s at all. The following section explains them.

How to form regular plural nouns
Word ending How to form the plural Examples
Add s to form most plurals that don’t fall into the categories below and to form the plurals of names. dog: dogs; house: houses; editor: editors; concept: concepts; Monday: Mondays; Kennedy: Kennedys
ch, sh, ss, x Add es. church: churches; wish: wishes; grass: grasses; tax: taxes
f, fe Often pluralized normally, but sometimes, the f or fe is replaced with ves. belief: beliefs; staff: staffs; safe: safes; wolf: wolves; life: lives
i Usually, pluralize normally. But es is occasionally used instead. bikini: bikinis; chili: chilies
o When preceded by another vowel, pluralize normally. When preceded by a consonant, usually add es. But some words are still pluralized normally. cuckoo: cuckoos; tomato: tomatoes; hero: heroes; piano: pianos; photo: photos
s, z Add es. Sometimes, the consonant is doubled (more often with z). gas: gases; waltz: waltzes; canvas: canvasses; quiz: quizzes
uy, y Replace y with ies, but only if it’s preceded by a consonant or by u. If preceded by a different vowel, pluralize normally. city: cities; baby: babies; spy: spies; soliloquy: soliloquies; day: days; ploy: ploys

Continue reading: What Is a Plural Noun? | Examples, Rules & Exceptions

Ending a Sentence with a Preposition | Examples & Tips

A preposition is a word such as “to,” “between,” “after,” or “for” that’s used to show the relationship between different elements in a sentence. They can express ideas related to time and location, as well as more abstract connections.

You may have been taught the rule that it’s wrong to end a sentence with a preposition, suggesting that it’s wrong to say, for example, “What are you preparing for?” and that you should say “For what are you preparing?” instead.

As you might guess from the fact that the “corrected” sentence reads much less naturally than the first, this “rule” is a superstition with no basis in reality. There is no problem with ending a sentence with a preposition, and it’s often better to do so than not.

Continue reading: Ending a Sentence with a Preposition | Examples & Tips

When to Use Apostrophe S (‘s) | Guide & Examples

An apostrophe followed by an “s” is used in English to create possessive nouns. For example, the noun dog becomes dog’s when you refer to something belonging to the dog, such as “the dog’s ball.”

With plural nouns ending in “s,” you add the apostrophe after “s” and do not add an additional “s.” For example, the plural noun parents becomes parents’ (not “parent’s” or “parents’s”) in a phrase like “my parents’ car.”

An apostrophe can also be used to indicate a contraction (shortening of a word or phrase). So an apostrophe “s” may instead be short for the word “is” or “has,” as in “it’s” (“it is” or “it has”). In this context, it doesn’t indicate possession.

Continue reading: When to Use Apostrophe S (‘s) | Guide & Examples

Compound Words | Types, List & Definition

compound word (sometimes just called a compound) is a series of two or more words that collectively form a single word. There are three types of compound words, which differ in terms of how they are written:

Types of compound words

If you’re confused about how to write a particular compound word or about whether it qualifies as a compound at all, check out our articles on commonly confused words (e.g., “everyday” vs. “every day”) and on common mistakes (e.g., “now a days” vs. “nowadays”).

For any words and phrases that we don’t cover, it’s best to consult a reliable dictionary like Merriam-Webster.

Continue reading: Compound Words | Types, List & Definition