A basic book reference in APA Style includes the author’s name, the book title, and information about the publisher (name and location). If there are translators or editors, these are also included. Use the buttons below to explore the format:
Interactive APA book example
You can also use the free APA Citation Generator to create your book citations. Just paste the ISBN or DOI and the generator autofills all the necessary fields.
Scribbr APA Citation Generator
Continue reading: How to cite a book in APA
A basic journal article reference in APA Style includes the usual elements plus the volume and issue number, the page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format.
You can also use the free APA Citation Generator to create your citations. All you need is the URL or DOI of the journal article. With the click of a button, the generator retrieves all the necessary information.
Scribbr APA Citation Generator
Continue reading: How to cite a journal article in APA Style
Textual analysis is a broad term for various research methods used to describe, interpret and understand texts. All kinds of information can be gleaned from a text – from its literal meaning to the subtext, symbolism, assumptions, and values it reveals.
The methods used to conduct textual analysis depend on the field and the aims of the research. It often aims to connect the text to a broader social, political, cultural, or artistic context.
Continue reading: A quick guide to textual analysis
The Bible is cited differently from other books in Chicago style. Biblical citations can appear either in the text, in parentheses, or in footnotes or endnotes, but the Bible is not included in your bibliography or reference list.
A Bible citation always includes the book, chapter, and verse. It sometimes also includes the version of the Bible you are using.
Chicago Bible citation examples
|In the text||In Job 4:8 (NIV), Eliphaz states that “those who plow evil and those who sow trouble reap it.”|
|In a parenthetical citation||Eliphaz tells Job that “those who plow evil and those who sow trouble reap it” (Job 4:8 [NIV]).|
|In a footnote||1. Job 4:8 (NIV).|
Continue reading: How to cite from the Bible in Chicago style
To cite a newspaper or magazine article in Chicago, you can use a footnote citation:
1. Gibbons-Neff, Thomas, and Mujib Mashal, “U.S. Is Quietly Reducing Its Troop Force in Afghanistan,” New York Times, October 21, 2019, https://nyti.ms/31xXNQb.
Chicago also allows you to cite newspaper articles informally within the text:
On October 21, 2019, the New York Times reported that the United States military was already in the process of withdrawing from Afghanistan “despite the lack of a peace deal with the Taliban” (“U.S. Is Quietly Reducing Its Troop Force in Afghanistan”).
In this case, you don’t need to include the source in your bibliography or reference list.
If you are required to formally cite newspaper articles, follow the relevant Chicago citation format: either notes and bibliography or author-date style.
Continue reading: How to cite a newspaper article in Chicago style
To cite a lecture, speech or talk in Chicago style, you’ll need the name of the lecturer; the title of the talk; details of the course, event or institution that hosted it; and the date on which it took place.
In a Chicago style bibliography, a typical lecture citation looks something like this:
Jones, David. “The Causes and Consequences of the Spanish Civil War.” Lecture, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, July 15, 2011.
Continue reading: How to cite lectures and speeches in Chicago style
The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for two different styles of citation: notes and bibliography and author-date style. A journal article citation looks different depending on which style you’re using.
Chicago journal citation: notes and bibliography style
|Footnote/endnote||1. Morris Dickstein, “A Literature of One’s Own: The Question of Jewish Book Awards.” Princeton University Library Chronicle 63, no. 1–2 (Winter 2002): 70–74. https://doi.org/10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.63.1-2.0070.|
|Bibliography entry||Dickstein, Morris. “A Literature of One’s Own: The Question of Jewish Book Awards.” Princeton University Library Chronicle 63, no. 1–2 (Winter 2002): 70–74. https://doi.org/10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.63.1-2.0070.|
Chicago journal citation: author-date style
|In-text citation||(Dickstein 2002)|
|Reference list entry||Dickstein, Morris. 2002. “A Literature of One’s Own: The Question of Jewish Book Awards.” Princeton University Library Chronicle 63, no. 1–2 (Winter): 70–74. https://doi.org/10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.63.1-2.0070.|
Continue reading: How to cite a journal article in Chicago style
The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for two styles of source citation: notes and bibliography and author-date. Author-date style is the preferred option in the sciences and social sciences.
In author-date style, an in-text citation consists of the author’s name, the publication year, and (if relevant) a page number. Each citation must correspond to an entry in the reference list at the end of your paper, where you give full details of the source.
Continue reading: Citing sources in Chicago author-date style
To cite an interview in Chicago style, the format depends on whether you are citing a published/broadcast interview or an unpublished interview (for example, one that you conducted yourself).
A published interview is usually cited much like any other item in a periodical, but starts with the interviewee’s name in place of the author. A Chicago style footnote for a published interview looks like this:
1. J.M. Coetzee, “Writers’ Groups: An Interview with J.M. Coetzee,” interview by Peter McDonald, Writers and Free Expression (blog), January 7, 2019, https://writersandfreeexpression.com/2019/01/07/writers-groups-an-interview-with-j-m-coetzee/.
An unpublished interview is generally just described in the text or in a note, not included in the bibliography, and is more flexible in format:
2. David Wilson (editor at Daily Times), in discussion with the author, January 2004.
Continue reading: How to cite an interview in Chicago style
The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide specific guidelines on how to cite YouTube. Turabian style, a version of Chicago designed for students and researchers, provides more detailed and practical advice on citing from YouTube and other online video sources.
A typical bibliography entry for a YouTube video in Turabian style looks like this:
Wall Street Journal. “How Hong Kong Protesters Evade Surveillance With Tech.” September 16, 2019. Video, 6:46. https://youtu.be/32KTKXZZ-BI.
Chicago/Turabian has two systems of in-text citation: you can use footnotes to cite sources, or you can provide author-date citations in the text. Choose one style and stick to it consistently.
Continue reading: How to cite a YouTube video in Turabian/Chicago style