How to cite an image in MLA

The format in which you cite an image in MLA style depends on where you viewed the image. Images are often found by searching online; in this case, you’ll cite the website where the image is hosted, in the following format.

Format Creator last name, First name. “Image Title.” or Description of image. Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.
Works Cited entry Quinn, Pete. “European Grey Wolf Portrait.” Flickr, 21 Dec. 2019, https://flic.kr/p/2k6vq7V
In-text citation (Quinn)

Note that if you find an image using a search engine like Google, you should cite and link to the site hosting the image, not the search engine.

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How to format a research paper

The formatting of a research paper is different depending on which style guide you’re following. In addition to citations, APA, MLA, and Chicago provide format guidelines for things like:

  • Font choices
  • Page layout
  • Format of headings
  • Format of the reference page

Scribbr offers free Microsoft Word templates for the most common formats. Simply download and get started on your paper.

APAMLA | Chicago author-date | Chicago notes & bibliography

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How to cite an encyclopedia in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

To cite an online encyclopedia entry in APA Style, start with the author of the entry (if listed), followed by the publication year, the entry title, the name of the editor, the encyclopedia name, the edition, the publisher, and the URL.

Format Author last name, Initials. (Year). Entry name. In Editor initialsLast name (Ed.), Encyclopedia name (Edition). Publisher. URL
Reference entry Wheeler, G. (2020). Bounded rationality. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2020 ed.). Stanford University. https://​plato.stanford.edu/​entries/​bounded-rationality/
In-text citation (Wheeler, 2020)

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How to cite a PowerPoint in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

To reference a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style, include the name of the author (whoever presented the PowerPoint), the date it was presented, the title (italicized), “PowerPoint slides” in square brackets, the name of the department and university, and the URL where the PowerPoint can be found.

Format Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). PowerPoint title [PowerPoint slides]. Department Name, University Name. URL
Reference list Simonton, D. K. (2013). The mad-genius controversy [PowerPoint slides]. College of Education, University of Iowa. https://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/IowaDeltaMadGenius.pdf
In-text citation (Simonton, 2013)

If the PowerPoint is not accessible to your readers, cite it as a personal communication instead.

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How to cite a patent in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

A patent is a legal document acknowledging an invention as the intellectual property of its inventor.

To cite a patent in APA Style, list the name of the inventor, the year it was issued (in parentheses), the title of the patent (in italics), the patent number, the name of the issuing body, and the URL if available.

Format Inventor name, Initials. (Year). Title of patent (Country/Region Patent No. Number). Issuing Body. URL
Reference list Ghatak, S. (2020). Immunization testing system (U.S. Patent No. 10,788,482). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://rb.gy/ik0fb0
In-text citation (Ghatak, 2017)

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How to cite a conference paper in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

The format for citing conference papers in APA Style depends on whether the paper has been published, and if so, in what format.

To cite a paper that has been presented at a conference but not published, include the author’s name, the date of the conference, the title of the paper (italicized), “Paper presentation” in square brackets, the name and location of the conference, and a URL or DOI if available.

Format Author name, Initials. (Year, Month DayDay). Paper title [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, City, State, Country. URL
Reference list Jang, S. (2019, August 8–11). Deconstructing the opposition of natural/arbitrary in Coleridge’s theory of language [Paper presentation]. NASSR 2019: Romantic Elements, Chicago, IL, United States.
In-text citation (Jang, 2019)

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How to cite a report in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

Reports may be published by governments, task groups, or other organizations. To reference a report with an individual author, include the author’s name and initials, the report title (italicized), the report number, the organization that published it, and the URL (if accessed online).

Format Author name, Initials. (Year). Report title: Subtitle (Report No. number). Publisher name. URL
Reference list Bedford, D. A. D. (2017). Enterprise information architecture: An overview (Report No. WA-RD 896.4). Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/896-4.pdf
In-text citation (Bedford, 2017, p. 12)

You can easily create accurate APA citations using our free Citation Generator.

Generate APA citations

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How to cite an interview in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

In APA Style, published interviews are cited in a different format from interviews you conducted yourself.

A personal interview you conducted that can’t be accessed by the reader should not be included in the reference list. Instead, it’s cited as a personal communication in the text.

To cite a published interview, follow the standard format for the source type it was published in (e.g. book, newspaper).

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How to cite a tweet in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

To reference a tweet in APA Style, include the author’s name and username, the date the tweet was posted, the text of the tweet in italics, “Tweet” in square brackets, “Twitter,” and the URL.

For tweets longer than 20 words, only include the first 20 in your reference.

Format Author name, Initials [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL
Reference list Trump, D. J. [@realDonaldTrump]. (2020, September 28). FAKE NEWS! [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1310432401454235650
In-text citation (Trump, 2020)

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How to cite a webpage with no author, date, or title in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

Webpage citations in APA Style consist of five components: author, publication date, title, website name, and URL.

Unfortunately, some of these components are sometimes missing. For instance, there may be no author or publication date. This article explains how to handle different kinds and combinations of missing information.

What’s missing? Solution
Nothing
No author Use title in place of author.
No date Use “n.d.” (“no date”) in place of date.
No title Describe the source in brackets.
No author or date Use title in place of author; use “n.d.” in place of date.
No author or title Use bracketed description in place of author.
No date or title Use “n.d.” in place of date; describe the source in brackets.
No author, date, or title Use bracketed description in place of author; use “n.d.” in place of date.

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