Transition words and phrases in academic writing

Transition words and phrases, also called linking or connecting words, are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

Transition words example

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore, we attempted a second solution. However, this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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How to present tables and figures in APA Style

APA Style has specific guidelines for formatting tables and figures and referring to them in the text.

A table concisely presents information (usually numbers) in rows and columns. A figure is any other image or illustration you include in your text – anything from a bar chart to a photograph.

You can create tables and figures yourself or adapt them from other sources. In both cases the format is the same, but if they come from another source you must acknowledge this and include the source in your reference list.

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A guide to ethnography

Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that involves immersing yourself in a particular community or organization to observe their behavior and interactions up close. The word “ethnography” also refers to the written report of the research that the ethnographer produces afterwards.

Ethnography is a flexible research method that allows you to gain a deep understanding of a group’s shared culture, conventions, and social dynamics. However, it also involves some practical and ethical challenges.

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Creating an APA Style table of contents

APA Style provides various formatting guidelines for academic papers, but it does not have specific rules regarding the table of contents.

If you include a table of contents in an APA style paper or thesis, make sure it adheres to general APA format guidelines. You can automatically create the table of contents by applying APA heading styles in Word.

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How and when to use et al.

“Et al.” is short for the Latin term “et alia,” meaning “and others.” It is used in academic citations when referring to a source with multiple authors:

Hulme et al. (2019) argue that …

Different citation styles have different rules for when to use “et al.” We explain the rules for APA, MLA, and Chicago.

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A step-by-step guide to literary analysis

Literary analysis means closely studying a text, interpreting its meanings, and exploring why the author made certain choices. It can be applied to novels, short stories, plays, poems, or any other form of literary writing.

A literary analysis essay is not just a summary of the plot or a book review. Instead, you need to analyze elements such as the language, perspective, and structure of the text, and explain how the author uses literary devices to create effects and convey ideas.

Before beginning a literary analysis essay, it’s essential to carefully read the text and come up with a thesis statement to keep your essay focused. As you write, follow the standard structure of an academic essay:

  1. An introduction that tells the reader what your essay will focus on.
  2. A main body, divided into paragraphs, that builds an argument using evidence from the text.
  3. A conclusion that clearly states the main point that you have shown with your analysis.

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How to cite an image in APA Style

An APA image citation includes the creator’s name, the year, the image title and format (e.g. painting, photograph, map), and the location where you accessed or viewed the image.

APA image citation example
FormatAuthor name. (Year). Image title [Format]. Retrieved from URL
or Museum, Location.
Reference listDelacroix, E. (1826–1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite
[Lithograph]. Paris, France: The Louvre.
In-text citation(Delacroix, 1826–1827)

When you include an image or photo in your text, as well as citing the source, you also need to list it as a figure. Images you created yourself don’t have to be cited, but should still be included in the list of figures.

You can create your citations automatically with the free APA citation generator.

Generate an APA image citation

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How to cite a YouTube video in APA

To cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the video title (italicized), the channel that uploaded it, the upload date, and a link to the video.

APA YouTube citation example
FormatUploader. (Year, Month day). Title of the video [Video file]. Retrieved from url.
Reference listScribbr. (2019, November 26). APA manual 7th edition: 17 most notable changes [Video file]. Retrieved from
In-text citation(Scribbr, 2019)

Note that the same format works for other video sites like Vimeo.

7th edition changes

In the 7th edition of APA, the description in square brackets is just “Video,” not “Video file,” and the words “Retrieved from” are omitted. Additionally, the name of the site is included before the URL:

Scribbr. (2019, November 26). APA manual 7th edition: 17 most notable changes [Video]. YouTube.

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How to cite a dictionary or encyclopedia in APA Style

To cite a dictionary definition in APA style, start with the word you’re citing, followed by the publication year, the dictionary name, and the publisher or URL. If there is no publication date, replace it with “n.d.” (“no date”).

 APA dictionary citation example
FormatEntry name. (Year). In Dictionary name (edition). Place: Publisher or Retrieved from URL
Reference listDocumentation. (n.d.). In dictionary. Retrieved from
In-text citation(“Documentation,” n.d.)

The format for encyclopedia entries is exactly the same, except that they’re more likely to list authors:

 APA encyclopedia citation example
Reference listLariviere, S. (n.d.). Hooded seal. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from
In-text citation(Lariviere, n.d.)

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