How to format a paper in Chicago style

The Chicago Manual of Style contains comprehensive guidelines about such issues as text formatting, citations, and quotation. Turabian is a version of Chicago style aimed at students and researchers, with specific guidelines for formatting papers and essays. The information in this article applies to both Chicago and Turabian style.

To apply Chicago format:

  • Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
  • Double-space the text.
  • Use 1 inch margins or larger.
  • Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
  • Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.

Note that any specific formatting advice from your instructor or faculty overrules these guidelines.

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How to create a Chicago style bibliography

A Chicago style bibliography lists the sources cited in your text. Each bibliography entry begins with the author’s name and the title of the source, followed by relevant publication details. The bibliography is alphabetized by authors’ last names.

A bibliography is required if you have cited your sources with short notes. If you have given complete references for every source in full notes, a bibliography is not necessary.

However, in most cases, Chicago recommends the use of short notes and bibliography. This keeps your citation notes concise, and gives your reader an overview of all your sources in one place.

Chicago bibliography format

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Citing sources with Chicago style footnotes

The notes and bibliography style is one of two citation options provided by the Chicago Manual of Style. Each time a source is quoted or paraphrased, a superscript number is placed in the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote containing details of the source.

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the text.

This is an example of a Chicago style footnote citation.1

1. Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” 11.

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Chicago in-text citations

An in-text citation is used to point readers toward any source you quote, paraphrase or refer to in your writing. The Chicago Manual of Style has two options for in-text citations:

You should choose one of these two citation options and use it consistently throughout your text. The source details are listed in full in a bibliography or reference list at the end.

Author-date citation example

(Woolf 1921, 11)

Footnote citation example

1. Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” 11.

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How to do thematic analysis

Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data. It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts. The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly.

There are various approaches to conducting thematic analysis, but the most common form follows a six-step process:

  1. Familiarization
  2. Coding
  3. Generating themes
  4. Reviewing themes
  5. Defining and naming themes
  6. Writing up

Thematic analysis is a flexible method that can be adapted to the purposes of your research.

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