How to cite a TED Talk in MLA

To cite a TED Talk from the TED website in MLA, list the name of the speaker, the talk title, the site name TED, the month and year, and the URL.

In an in-text citation, you can use a timestamp to highlight a specific quote where necessary.

MLA format Speaker last name, First name. “Talk Title.” TED, Month Year, URL.
MLA Works Cited entry Jacobs, A. J. “The Life Cycle of a Cup of Coffee.” TED, Jan. 2021, www.ted.com/talks/a_j_jacobs_the_life_cycle_of_a_cup_of_coffee.
MLA in-text citation (Jacobs 3:15)

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How to cite a PDF in MLA

MLA doesn’t treat PDFs as their own source type. When you want to cite a PDF, you should determine what type of source it contains (e.g. a book or journal article) and cite it in the appropriate format.

If you feel it’s relevant, you may mention in your reference that the source was accessed as a PDF by adding “PDF file.” Note that you can write “PDF download” instead if you link to a page where the PDF can be downloaded (rather than directly to the PDF).

If you’re unsure about the source type, look for clues in the PDF (e.g. the name of the larger publication it comes from), or ask the instructor who provided you with it. This article gives examples of citations for several source types you might encounter in PDF form.

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How to cite a TV show in MLA

To cite an episode of a TV show in MLA style, list the episode title, the name of the show (in italics), the names and roles of any relevant contributors, the season and episode numbers, main production or distribution company, and year.

In an in-text citation, cite the name of the episode in quotation marks. You can use a timestamp to highlight a specific moment in the episode.

MLA format Episode Title.” TV Show Title, created by Creator first name Last name, season Number, episode Number, Production Company or Distribution Company, Year.
MLA Works Cited entry “Fly.” Breaking Bad, created by Vince Gilligan, season 3, episode 10, High Bridge Productions, 2010.
MLA in-text citation (“Fly” 22:34)

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How to cite a podcast in MLA

To cite a podcast episode accessed online in MLA style, list the host of the episode as the author, followed by the episode title, podcast name, the season and episode numbers if available, the publisher, the date, and the URL.

If you need to highlight a specific quote in an in-text citation, use a timestamp.

MLA format Host last name, First name, host. “Episode Title.” Podcast Name, season number, episode number, Publisher, Day Month Year, URL.
MLA Works Cited entry Vogt, P. J., and Alex Goldman, hosts. “On the Inside.” Reply All, episode 64, Gimlet, 12 May 2016, gimletmedia.com/shows/reply-all/brho4v/64-on-the-inside.
MLA in-text citation (Vogt and Goldman 11:34)

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How to cite a PDF in APA Style

APA Style doesn’t provide a specific citation format for PDFs. Instead, you’ll have to determine what kind of source the PDF is (e.g., a book, a journal article) and cite it in the appropriate format.

If you’re not sure what type of source you’re dealing with, look for clues in the PDF. For example, you might find the name of the larger publication the PDF comes from, which you can then look up to see what kind of source it is. If you received the PDF from an instructor, you can always ask them to clarify how to cite it.

This article explains the formats for several source types you might encounter in PDF form below.

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How to cite a brochure in APA Style

Brochures and pamphlets fall under “gray literature” in APA Style, meaning they’re cited in a similar format to reports.

List the author (usually an organization rather than an individual), the year of publication, the title in italics, “Brochure” (or “Pamphlet”) in square brackets, and the name of the publisher. Omit the publisher name if it was already listed as author.

APA format Organization Name. (Year). Title [Brochure or Pamphlet]. Publisher.
APA reference entry California University of Pennsylvania. (2010). Campus map and visitor guide [Brochure].
APA in-text citation (California University of Pennsylvania, 2010)

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How to cite a dissertation in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

The format for citing someone else’s dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).

To cite a dissertation or thesis from a database, use the following format. In the square brackets, specify the type of dissertation or thesis and the university. As with other database sources, no URL or DOI is included.

APA format Author last name, Initials. (Year). Dissertation title (Publication No. Number) [Type of dissertation/thesis, University Name]. Database Name.
APA reference entry Ford, L. (2015). The use of experiential acceptance in psychotherapy with emerging adults (Publication No. 3731118) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
APA in-text citation (Ford, 2015)

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How to cite a press release in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

To cite a press release in APA Style, list the organization responsible, the date of publication, the title in italics, “Press release” in square brackets, and the URL.

APA format Organization Name. (Year Month Day). Press release title [Press release]. URL
APA reference entry American Psychological Association. (2020, November 17). Psychologists report large increase in demand for anxiety, depression treatment [Press release]. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2020/11/anxiety-depression-treatment
APA in-text citation (American Psychological Association, 2020)
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