IEEE Reference Page | Format & Examples

The IEEE reference page (sometimes called the IEEE bibliography) appears at the end of your paper. It’s where you list full information about all the sources you’ve cited, numbered to match your IEEE in-text citations, so that the reader can find and consult them.

Follow these guidelines to format the reference page:

  • Write the heading “References” in bold at the top, either left-aligned or centered.
  • Write the reference numbers down the left side, in square brackets (not to be confused with parentheses).
  • Indent the references themselves consistently to separate them from the numbers.
  • Single-space the references, with a normal paragraph break in between them.
If you need to write your whole paper in IEEE format (rather than just following IEEE citation format), then there are some additional requirements. You need to follow this format to submit to IEEE publications. You can find a full template in our article on IEEE paper format.

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Ad Nauseam / *Ad Nauseum | Meaning & Examples

Ad nauseam is an adverb meaning “to a sickening degree.”

It’s usually not used literally to refer to sickness or nausea but instead means that something is going on and on, or being repeated over and over, until it becomes annoying or boring (until you’re sick of it).

Examples: Ad nauseam in a sentence
The issue of gun control has been debated ad nauseam.

Steve talks about his boyfriend ad nauseam.

The teacher made her repeat the memory exercises ad nauseam.

Though people often misspell it “ad nauseum,” the only correct spelling is “ad nauseam.”

Ad nauseam is a term that comes from Latin, but it’s been used in English for hundreds of years, so you don’t need to italicize it as you would for a more recent loanword. This is also true for other Latin terms, such as mea culpa and vice versa.

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IEEE In-Text Citation | Guidelines & Examples

An IEEE in-text citation consists of a number in brackets included in your sentence. This number corresponds to an entry on your IEEE reference page providing full information about the source.

Sources are numbered in the order they’re cited, so the first source you cite is [1], the second is [2], and so on. If you cite the same source again, it has the same number each time (don’t use “ibid.“) and only one entry on the reference page.

Example: IEEE in-text citation
Black [7] argues that this methodology is flawed.
If you’re submitting to an IEEE publication, you should also follow the IEEE paper format guidelines.

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Comma Before or After And | Rules & Examples

In English, you must put a comma before “and” when it connects two independent clauses. A clause is independent when it could stand on its own as a sentence—it has its own subject and verb.

Example: Comma before “and” connecting two independent clauses
Jagmeet walks to school, and Rebecca takes the bus.

But when “and” connects two verbs with the same subject, you shouldn’t use a comma.

Example: “And” connecting two verbs with the same subject
Jagmeet walks to school and arrives late.

In this case, Jagmeet is the subject who performs both actions (walking and arriving).

The same rules apply to using commas with the other main coordinating conjunctions, namely commas before or after “but,” commas before “or,” and commas before or after “so.”

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Born vs. Borne | Definition, Difference & Examples

Born and borne are both past participle forms of the verb “bear,” meaning “carry.” They’re both pronounced in the same way.

  • Born” is used when you’re referring to birth, whether literally (to childbirth) or figuratively.
  • Borne” is used in all other cases, when you’re just referring to bearing (carrying) something. It’s also the spelling used in compound words like “airborne” (carried through the air) and “blood-borne” (transmitted by blood).
Examples: Born in a sentence Examples: Borne in a sentence
He was born in New York in the summer of 1957. Mosquito-borne diseases are a major problem in tropical climates.
Greatness is often born from adversity. She had borne the responsibility for many years.
She was a born leader. My hard work has finally borne fruit.
The hospital I was born in has been demolished. It must be borne in mind that little research has been done into this subject.
Watch out for other potential mistakes with the verb “bear,” such as confusing “bear” and “bare,” or misusing the expression “bear with me.”

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Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles

A citation style is a set of guidelines on how to cite sources in your academic writing. You always need a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source to avoid plagiarism. How you present these citations depends on the style you follow. Scribbr’s citation generator can help!

Different styles are set by different universities, academic associations, and publishers, often published in an official handbook with in-depth instructions and examples.

There are many different citation styles, but they typically use one of three basic approaches: parenthetical citations, numerical citations, or note citations.

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How to Cite a Wikipedia Article | APA, MLA & Chicago

Wikipedia is a useful source of background information that students often use in the early stages of research. However, it’s often not considered a reliable source to cite in your academic writing.

If you’re certain you’re allowed to cite Wikipedia, the citation usually includes:

  • Title of the article
  • “Wikipedia” and/or “Wikimedia Foundation”
  • Date the article was last updated
  • URL

The specific format differs depending on what citation style you’re following: APA, MLA, and Chicago style are three of the most commonly used.

Cite a Wikipedia article in APA Style now:

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Citing a Journal Article in Chicago Style | Format & Examples

Note: This article mainly covers notes and bibliography style. For author-date style, click here.
To automatically generate journal article citations in Chicago style, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago Citation Generator:

Chicago Citation Generator

To cite an online journal article in Chicago notes and bibliography style, list the author’s name, the title of the article, the journal name, volume, issue, and publication date, the page range on which the article appears, and a DOI or URL.

For an article accessed in print, follow the same format and simply omit the DOI or URL. Pay attention to the punctuation (e.g., commas, quotation marks, parentheses) in your citations and notes.

Chicago journal article citation
Chicago bibliography Author last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume, no. Issue (Month or Season Year): Page range. DOI or URL.

Pickard, Hanna. “What Is Personality Disorder?” Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 18, no. 3 (September 2011): 181–84.

Full note Author first name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Name Volume, no. Issue (Month or Season Year): Page number(s). DOI or URL.

1. Hanna Pickard, “What Is Personality Disorder?” Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 18, no. 3 (September 2011): 182.

Short note Author last name, “Shortened Title,” Page number(s).

2. Pickard, “What Is Personality Disorder?” 182.

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What Are Footnotes? | Guide with Word Instructions

Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of the page in a piece of academic writing and indicated in the text with superscript numbers (or sometimes letters or other symbols). You can insert footnotes automatically in Word or Google Docs. They’re used to provide:

  • Citations in certain styles
  • Additional information that would disrupt the flow of the main text

What Are Footnotes

Note: Footnotes are a lot like endnotes, which are used in similar ways. The difference is that endnotes appear all together at the end of the text, instead of separately on each page. This gives your text a less cluttered appearance, but it can also be inconvenient for readers.

Continue reading: What Are Footnotes? | Guide with Word Instructions