How to write an annotated bibliography in Chicago/Turabian style

While a standard Chicago style bibliography provides publication details of your sources, an annotated bibliography also provides a summary (and often an evaluation) of each source.

Turabian style, a version of Chicago style specifically designed for students and researchers, provides formatting guidelines for an annotated bibliography. A typical entry might look like this:

Kenny, Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy: In Four Parts. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2010.

Broad history of Western philosophy from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Divided into four periods—ancient, medieval, early modern, and modern—each section begins with a chronological overview of the key thinkers, followed by chapters dedicated to each significant subfield in the period: metaphysics, political philosophy, God, etc. Kenny generally provides thorough and fair assessments of the major philosophers’ work, but is pointedly dismissive of Derrida and other critical theorists, significantly weakening the book’s coverage of “postmodern” philosophy.

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How to cite a website in Chicago style | Formats & examples

Note: This article mainly covers notes and bibliography style. For author-date style, click here.

To cite a website in Chicago style, follow the formats shown below for your footnotes and bibliography entries.

Chicago website citation
Chicago bibliography Author last name, first name. “Page Title.” Website Name. Month Day, Year. URL.

Caulfield, Jack. “A Step-by-Step Guide to the Writing Process.” Scribbr. April 24, 2020. https://www.scribbr.com/­academic-writing/­writing-process/.

Full note Author first name last name, “Page Title,” Website Name, Month Day, Year, URL.

1. Jack Caulfield, “A Step-by-Step Guide to the Writing Process,” Scribbr, April 24, 2020, https://www.scribbr.com/­academic-writing/­writing-process/.

Short note Author last name, “Shortened Page Title.”

2. Caulfield, “Writing Process.”

There are different formats for online newspaper articles or blog posts, images, films viewed online, and social media posts.

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How to format a Turabian/Chicago style title page

Turabian style, a version of Chicago style designed specifically for writing research papers, theses, and dissertations, provides detailed guidelines for formatting a title page.

A title page is not mandatory; if you haven’t been told to include one, you can just center your title at the top of the first page.

These are the key guidelines for creating a title page in Turabian style:

  • Title and subtitle appear ⅓ of the way down the page.
  • Other information (e.g. your name, the date, class information) appears ⅔ down the page.
  • All text is center-aligned and double-spaced.
  • No page number is included on the title page.

Note that any specific guidelines given to you by your instructor or faculty overrule the guidelines presented here.

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Chicago style format for papers | Requirements & examples

The information in this article is largely drawn from Turabian style—a version of Chicago style aimed at students and researchers. When writing a paper in Chicago style, these are the guidelines to follow; for the sake of simplicity, the term “Chicago” is used here.

To apply Chicago format:

  • Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
  • Double-space the text.
  • Use 1 inch margins or larger.
  • Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
  • Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.

Note that any specific formatting advice from your instructor or faculty overrules these guidelines. Template documents set up in Chicago style are available to download below. Just select the one with the citation style you’re following.

Author-dateNotes and bibliography

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Creating a Chicago style bibliography | Format & examples

A Chicago style bibliography lists the sources cited in your text. Each bibliography entry begins with the author’s name and the title of the source, followed by relevant publication details. The bibliography is alphabetized by authors’ last names.

A bibliography is not mandatory, but is strongly recommended for all but very short papers. It gives your reader an overview of all your sources in one place. Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether you need a bibliography.

Chicago bibliography format

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Chicago style footnotes | Citation format and examples

The notes and bibliography style is one of two citation options provided by the Chicago Manual of Style. Each time a source is quoted or paraphrased, a superscript number is placed in the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote containing details of the source.

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the text.

This is an example of a Chicago style footnote citation.1

1. Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” 11.

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Chicago in-text citations | Styles, format and examples

An in-text citation is used to point readers toward any source you quote, paraphrase or refer to in your writing. The Chicago Manual of Style has two options for in-text citations:

You should choose one of these two citation options and use it consistently throughout your text. The source details are listed in full in a bibliography or reference list at the end.

Author-date citation example

(Woolf 1921, 11)

Footnote citation example

1. Woolf, “Modern Fiction,” 11.

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How to Do Thematic Analysis | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data. It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as an interview or transcripts. The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly.

There are various approaches to conducting thematic analysis, but the most common form follows a six-step process: familiarization, coding, generating themes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and writing up.

This process was originally developed for psychology research by Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke. However, thematic analysis is a flexible method that can be adapted to many different kinds of research.

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