The Basics of In-Text Citation | APA & MLA Examples

An in-text citation is a short acknowledgement you include whenever you quote or take information from a source in academic writing. It points the reader to the source so they can see where you got your information.

In-text citations most commonly take the form of short parenthetical statements indicating the author and publication year of the source, as well as the page number if relevant.

Example: APA Style in-text citation
(Jackson, 2005, p. 16)

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What are in-text citations for?

The point of an in-text citation is to show your reader where your information comes from. Including citations:

  • Avoids plagiarism by acknowledging the original author’s contribution
  • Allows readers to verify your claims and do follow-up research
  • Shows you are engaging with the literature of your field

Academic writing is seen as an ongoing conversation among scholars, both within and between fields of study. Showing exactly how your own research draws on and interacts with existing sources is essential to keeping this conversation going.

When do you need an in-text citation?

An in-text citation should be included whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text.

Quoting means including the original author’s words directly in your text, usually introduced by a signal phrase. Quotes should always be cited (and indicated with quotation marks), and you should include a page number indicating where in the source the quote can be found.

Example: Quote with APA Style in-text citation 
Evolution is a gradual process that “can act only by very short and slow steps” (Darwin, 1859, p. 510).

Paraphrasing means putting information from a source into your own words. In-text citations are just as important here as with quotes, to avoid the impression you’re taking credit for someone else’s ideas. Include page numbers where possible, to show where the information can be found.

Example: Paraphrase with APA Style in-text citation
The evolutionary process consists of a series of incremental changes over a long period of time (Darwin, 1859, p. 510).

However, to avoid over-citation, bear in mind that some information is considered common knowledge and doesn’t need to be cited. For example, you don’t need a citation to prove that Paris is the capital city of France, and including one would be distracting.

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Types of in-text citation

Different types of in-text citation are used in different citation styles. They always direct the reader to a reference list giving more complete information on each source.

Author-date citations (used in APA, Harvard, and Chicago author-date) include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number when available. Author-page citations (used in MLA) are the same except that the year is not included.

Both types are divided into parenthetical and narrative citations. In a parenthetical citation, the author’s name appears in parentheses along with the rest of the information. In a narrative citation, the author’s name appears as part of your sentence, not in parentheses.

Examples of different types of in-text citation
Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
Author-date (APA) The treatment proved highly effective (Smith, 2018, p. 11). Smith states that the treatment was highly effective (2018, p. 11).
Author-page (MLA) The treatment proved highly effective (Smith 11). Smith states that the treatment was highly effective (11).

Note: Footnote citations like those used in Chicago notes and bibliography are sometimes also referred to as in-text citations, but the citation itself appears in a note separate from the text.

Frequently asked questions about in-text citations

What is an in-text citation?

An in-text citation is an acknowledgement you include in your text whenever you quote or paraphrase a source. It usually gives the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number of the relevant text. In-text citations allow the reader to look up the full source information in your reference list and see your sources for themselves.

When do I need to cite sources?

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays, research papers, and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago.

Which citation style should I use?

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

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Jack Caulfield

Jack is a Brit based in Amsterdam, with an MA in comparative literature. He writes for Scribbr and reads a lot of books in his spare time.


August 31, 2022 at 4:24 AM

When paraphrasing within a paragraph and inserting my own analysis/thoughts, how should I parenthetically cite?

This example sentence is from a source (Source 37). This example sentence is from my own brain. This is another idea paraphrased from the same source used earlier (Source 37).

Like that?


Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
September 1, 2022 at 11:26 AM

Hi Nicole,

Yes, that's right. Usually if you paraphrase a source in multiple consecutive sentences, you can just cite it in the first one. But when you add your own ideas and then return to the source again, you should cite it again, as in your example.


covina b. belen
July 2, 2022 at 12:22 PM

where/how do I show ownership (i.e. the apostrophe) by author/s in parentheses: Parker (2020) and Sordab (2021)'s study agreed to . . .


Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
July 4, 2022 at 11:25 AM

Hi Covina,

When you need to use a possessive apostrophe in this context, the correct form is "Sordab's (2021) study ..."


Arra Y.
May 21, 2022 at 8:37 PM

What if I'm citing a website (so no page numbers), I don't have a date, but I do have an author that I named (ex. According to Smith)?

ex. According to Smith, "Citation isn't that hard as long as you know the basic rules" (?)

What would I put in the parentheses? No page numbers, no date, and I would put just "Smith" in except that I already named the author...


Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
May 23, 2022 at 11:54 AM

Hi Arra,

In cases where all of the applicable information already appears in your sentence, you can just leave out the parentheses, since there's no further information to give.


Muriel C Cortes
September 24, 2021 at 3:51 AM

When writing my critical analysis paper and mentioning a text book's concept that has two authors', should I put the name of the text book and the name of both authors? Would this example be correct: According to the textbook "Gender" by Wade and Ferree, men and women might not be naturally opposites, but they are opposites (Wade & Ferree, 2019, p. 13).


Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
September 27, 2021 at 1:07 PM

Hi Muriel,

Yes, in most styles (and all of the three main styles covered here), you'd mention the names of both authors for a two-author book. The name of the book isn't a mandatory part of the citation, but you can mention it in your sentence if you feel it's relevant information.

There are a couple of issues in your example though: First, the name of the textbook would usually be italicized rather than in quotation marks: Gender. And second, it's not necessary to mention the authors' names both in the sentence and in the parentheses—you should keep your citations as concise as possible. So if you'd already mentioned them in the sentence, the part in parentheses could just be (2019, p. 13); or you could remove the earlier mentioned of the authors' names and keep the parenthetical citation as is.


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