How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Summarizing, or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

  1. Read the text
  2. Break it down into sections
  3. Identify the key points in each section
  4. Write the summary
  5. Check the summary against the article

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or analyzing the source. You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

When to write a summary

There are many situations in which you might have to summarize an article or other source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
  • To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
  • To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay, research paper, or dissertation, you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyze or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarizing is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

Step 1: Read the text

You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

  1. Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
  2. Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
  3. Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.

    There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

    • Start by reading the abstract. This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
    • Pay attention to headings and subheadings. These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
    • Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?

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    Step 2: Break the text down into sections

    To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

    If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organized into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

    Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

    Tip: To see at a glance what each part of the text focuses on, try writing a word or phrase in the margin next to each paragraph that describes the paragraph’s content. If several paragraphs cover similar topics, you may group them together.

    Step 3: Identify the key points in each section

    Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

    Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

    In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

    Key points of a scientific article
    Introduction
    Methods
    • What type of research was done?
    • How were data collected and analyzed?
    Results
    • What were the most important findings?
    • Were the hypotheses supported?
    Discussion/conclusion
    • What is the overall answer to the research question?
    • How does the author explain these results?
    • What are the implications of the results?
    • Are there any important limitations?
    • Are there any key recommendations?

    If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

    In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement—the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

    Step 4: Write the summary

    Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

    To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

    The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

    Examples of article summaries

    Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article, which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.”

    An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

    For example, in a literature review or research paper, you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

    Example of a concise article summary

    Using national survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” and did not find statistically significant evidence to support this hypothesis. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables.

    Citing the source you’re summarizing

    When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style, but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

    You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

    APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

    Step 5: Check the summary against the article

    Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

    • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
    • You haven’t missed any essential information
    • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.

    If you’re summarizing many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

    Read our comparison of the best plagiarism checkers of 2022, or check out the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker directly.

    Frequently asked questions about summarizing

    What is a summary?

    A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words.

    How long is a summary?

    A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.

    What kinds of assignments involve writing a summary?

    You might have to write a summary of a source:

    • As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
    • For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
    • To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
    • In a paper, to summarize or introduce a relevant study
    How can I summarize a source without plagiarizing?

    To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:

    • Write the summary entirely in your own words by paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
    • Cite the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.
    What’s the difference between an abstract and a summary?

    An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis, dissertation or journal article. It should summarize the whole text, not just introduce it.

    An abstract is a type of summary, but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing. For example, you might summarize a source in a paper, in a literature review, or as a standalone assignment.

    Is this article helpful?
    Shona McCombes

    Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.

    6 comments

    Billy Chris Mukeshimana
    January 19, 2022 at 2:47 PM

    Dear Shona can I use your content to teach my high school students?

    Reply

    Jack Caulfield
    Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
    January 20, 2022 at 10:40 AM

    Hi Billy,

    Yes, it's fine to use Scribbr's articles and other resources in your classes, as long as you credit us. Glad you find the article useful!

    Reply

    Sutton Seth
    November 23, 2021 at 12:33 PM

    how do you paraphrase

    Reply

    Julia Merkus
    Julia Merkus (Scribbr Team)
    November 23, 2021 at 6:12 PM

    Thank you for your comment! I'd like to refer you to this article about paraphrasing your sources. The article also contains a helpful video and some examples.

    Reply

    Stephen Dwyer
    June 28, 2021 at 10:53 AM

    Dear Shona,

    May I use some of the content in your article to teach my students about summarizing? You have presented an excellent article and I would like to use the example summary...

    Kindest regards,

    Stephen

    Reply

    Jack Caulfield
    Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
    June 28, 2021 at 5:41 PM

    Hi Stephen,

    You can always feel free to use Scribbr content in your teaching. Just make sure to credit Scribbr. Glad you're finding the material helpful!

    Reply

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