How and when to use et al.
“Et al.” is short for the Latin term “et alia,” meaning “and others.” It is used in academic citations when referring to a source with multiple authors:
Different citation styles have different rules for when to use “et al.” We explain the rules for APA, MLA, and Chicago.
There are several common mistakes to watch out for when using “et al.”
The “al” in “et al.” is always followed by a period. This is because the term is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase “et alia” – the period indicates that it is an abbreviation:
- et al
- et. al
- et. al.
- et al.
“Et al.” may be directly followed by other punctuation where necessary, but the period always comes first:
When “et al.” comes right at the end of a sentence, only one period is used:
Et al. vs. etc.
“Et al.” should not be confused with “etc.”; it is used for lists of people, whereas “etc.” is used for lists of things and concepts:
Using et al. in APA style
In APA style in-text citations, when a source has two authors, always list both. When there are six or more authors, cite the first author followed by “et al.”
When a source has three, four, or five authors, list all authors the first time the source is cited. In all subsequent citations, give only the first author followed by “et al.”
|Number of authors||First citation||Subsequent citations|
|1–2 authors||(Anderson & Singh, 2018)||(Anderson & Singh, 2018)|
|3–5 authors||(Smith, Sanchez, Davies, Baldwin, & Caulfield, 2016)||(Smith et al., 2016)|
|6+ authors||(McDonnell et al., 2019)||(McDonnell et al., 2019)|
APA does not recommend using “et al.” in the reference list. Instead, list up to seven authors in full. When a source has more than seven authors, list the first six, then an ellipsis (…), then the final name:
Using et al. in MLA style
|Number of authors||In-text citation example||Works cited example|
|1–2 authors||(Smith and Davies)||Smith, Joshua, and Robert Davies. …|
|3+ authors||(McDonnell et al.)||McDonnell, Frederick, et al. …|
Using et al. in Chicago style
For sources with one, two, or three authors, list all author names in your in-text citations (whether footnotes or author-date). For sources with four or more authors, use the first name followed by “et al.”
|Number of authors||Footnote example||Author-date example|
|1–3 authors||1. Joshua Smith and Robert Davies,…||(Smith and Davies 2019)|
|3+ authors||2. James Simpson et al., …||Simpson et al., …|
In your Chicago style reference list or bibliography, list up to 10 authors. If a source has more than 10 authors, list the first seven followed by “et al.”: