Using abbreviations and acronyms

An abbreviation is a short form of a word or phrase that is usually made by deleting certain letters. In the following sentence, everything underlined is an abbreviation:

Dr. Jones, who’s currently undertaking research on DNA, can’t attend the WHO conference being held in the US in Oct. 2016.

Not all of the abbreviations used in this example have the same look and feel. This is because while Dr. and Oct. are general abbreviations, who’s and can’t are contractions and DNA, WHO, and US are acronyms. In academic writing, contractions should be avoided, but acronyms are commonly used.


Contractions are mostly used to simplify common pronoun/verb combinations. Deleted letters are replaced by an apostrophe.

ContractionsCommon pronoun/verb combinations
I’mI am
isn’tis not
let’slet us
she’sshe is
you’veyou have

However, contractions are generally considered too informal for academic writing. In this context, always write out the full words instead.

  • Let’s consider the first theory, which isn’t commonly accepted.
  • Let us consider the first theory, which is not commonly accepted.


Acronyms are usually formed using the first letter (or letters) of each word in a phrase. When they are read, some are pronounced as if they are words (such as OPEC); others are read as letters (such as the UK).

BeneluxBelgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
FAQFrequently Asked Question
ITInformation technology
MBAMaster of Business Administration
SWOTStrengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

Pluralize acronyms by adding “s” without an apostrophe.

  • Many CEO’s of major MNC’s attend the Davos Forum.
  • Many CEOs of major MNCs attend the Davos Forum.

Introducing acronyms

Introduce every acronym before using it in the text. The first time you use the term, put the acronym in parentheses after the full term. Thereafter, you can stick to using the acronym.

  • The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is headquartered in Switzerland. The IOC President is elected by secret ballot.

Do not introduce an acronym unless you will use it a minimum of three or four times. If it only appears once or twice, write out the full term. If you use a lot of acronyms in the document, you can also introduce them in a list of abbreviations.

There are some extremely common acronyms that do not need to be introduced. However, the list is small. Some examples of acronyms that don’t need to be spelled out include:

CountriesPRC, UAE, UK, USA, USSR
Science and technologyAIDS, AM/FM, CD, DVD, HDMI, HIV, laser, PC, radar, TV, USB
TimeBC/AD, BCE/CE, time zones
Latin abbreviationse.g., i.e., et al.

What can proofreading do for your paper?

Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing.

See editing example

Latin abbreviations

There are some Latin abbreviations that are common in academic writing.

e.g. (exempli gratia)for exampleUsed to give examples in parenthesesMany species of primates (e.g., orangutans) are endangered.
i.e. (id est)that isUsed to clarify, specify or restate something in parenthesesMany endangered species (i.e., species that are very likely to become extinct) are primates.
etc. (et cetera)and so onUsed at the end of a list in parentheses to indicate more unstated items on the listThere are many species of primates that are endangered (gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, etc.).
et al. (et alia)and other peopleUsed after the first author when citing publications with multiple authorsConsumers experience greater risk with online purchases (Writers et al., 2016, p. 47).
ibid. (ibidem)in the same placeUsed in footnote and endnote citations when citing the same source and page twice in a row1. Porter, 63-64.
2. Ibid.

Make sure not to confuse “e.g.” and “i.e.”. In general, it’s best to avoid using these abbreviations in the main text, especially in US English. Instead, put them inside parentheses followed by a comma, or write out full words.

  • Many species of primates, e.g. orangutans, are endangered.
  • Many species of primates (e.g., orangutans) are endangered.
  • Many species of primates, such as orangutans, are endangered.

Punctuating abbreviations

Periods should always be used with Latin abbreviations, but not with contractions or acronyms. For general abbreviations, there are differences in punctuation between US and UK English.

Most title abbreviations take a period (e.g. Doctor to Dr., Mister to Mr., Honorable to Hon., Drive to Dr.)Title abbreviations take a period only if the abbreviation does not end on the last letter of the full word (e.g. Doctor to Dr, Mister to Mr, but Honourable to Hon., Drive to Dr.)

Abbreviations (including acronyms) are heavily used in legal writing. The conventions must be strictly followed, but they vary between countries and universities. If you are writing on a legal topic, you should adhere to the relevant style.

Abbreviations in APA

If you are following the APA style guidelines, there are some specific guidelines for certain types of abbreviation.


Only abbreviate statistical terms (such as SD and M) and units of measurement (such as kg and min) if you are also using a number.

  • The first step entailed using the centimeter measurements to calculate a mean (M = 32.4 cm, SD = 3.7 cm).


Use periods if you are abbreviating a Latin term (such as g., a.m., and etc.) or referring to something related to your references (such as ed. or p.).

Use periods when US serves as an adjective, but not when it refers to the country.

  • The US is classified as a federal republic, with the U.S. Congress playing a key role.
Is this article helpful?
Sarah Vinz

Sarah's academic background includes a Master of Arts in English, a Master of International Affairs degree, and a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science. She loves the challenge of finding the perfect formulation or wording and derives much satisfaction from helping students take their academic writing up a notch.

Your dissertation without language mistakes and blunders?

Get help from a professional Scribbr editor.
More info & rates »
Trustpilot score of 9.8


November 27, 2019 at 5:33 AM

For a PhD using APA format, do you need to write an acronym in full at the start of each chapter or only the very first time you use it? Thank you.


Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
November 29, 2019 at 12:40 PM

Hi Jessica! The APA manual does not provide specific guidelines on this. You can reintroduce acronyms at the beginning of each chapter if you think this would be helpful to your readers, but it is not required.


Comment or ask a question.

Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot.