How to write a literature review

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) on a particular topic. It gives an overview of key findings, concepts and developments in relation to a research problem or question. A good literature review doesn’t just summarize sourcesit aims to:

  • Analyze, interpret and critically evaluate the literature
  • Synthesize sources to highlight patterns, themes, conflicts, and gaps
  • Show the state of current knowledge in relation to a central research question or hypothesis

When do you have to write a literature review?

If you write a thesis or dissertation, you will have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. You might include it in the introduction or theoretical framework, or it might be a separate chapter that comes before the methodology and results sections.

You might also be assigned a literature review as a stand-alone paper. The content will look slightly different in each case, but the process of conducting a literature review will follow the same steps.

Step 1: Collect, evaluate and select literature

Before you begin searching for literature, you need a narrowly defined topic.

If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions. This is the first step in understanding the state of knowledge on your topic before you begin your own research.

If you are writing a literature review as a stand-alone assignment, you will have to choose a focus and develop a central question to direct your search. Unlike a dissertation research question, this question has to be answerable without collecting or generating new data. You should be able to answer it based only on a review of existing publications.

Dissertation research question

How can the satisfaction of company X’s online customers be improved in order to increase customer loyalty?

Literature review research question

What is the relationship between customer loyalty and customer satisfaction?

Search for literature using keywords and citations

Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research topic and question. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:

When you find a useful article, check the reference list to find more relevant sources. To identify any important publications that didn’t show up in your keyword search, take note of recurring citations. If the same authors, books or articles keep appearing in your reading, make sure to seek them out. You can find out how many times an article has been cited on Google Scholarhigh citation counts mean the article has been influential in the field.

Evaluate and select sources

You probably won’t be able to read absolutely everything on the topic—start by reading the abstract to determine whether the article is useful. You will have to evaluate which sources are most valuable and relevant to your questions.

For each publication, ask yourself:

  • What question or problem is the author addressing?
  • What are the key concepts and how are they defined?
  • What are the key theories, models and methods? Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach?
  • What are the results and conclusions of the study?
  • How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge?
  • How does the publication contribute to your understanding of the topic? What are its key insights and arguments?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?

Make sure the sources you use are credible, and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research. The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective (for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time).

Take notes and cite your sources

As you read, you should also begin the writing processtake notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism.

It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography, where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process. You can use our free citation software to quickly create correct and consistent APA citations or MLA format citations.

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Step 2: Find connections and themes

To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, you need to identify relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:

  • Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): do certain approaches become more or less popular over time?
  • Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature?
  • Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
  • Pivotal publications: are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field?
  • Gaps: what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed?

This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.

Step 3: Plan your literature review’s structure

There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategiesfor example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically.


The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order. Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.


If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.


If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods, you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:

  • Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
  • Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
  • Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources


A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.

Step 4: Write your literature review

Like any other academic text, your literature review should have an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.


The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review.

Dissertation literature review

If you are writing the literature review as part of your dissertation or thesis, reiterate your central problem or research question and give a brief summary of the scholarly context. You can emphasize the timeliness of the topic (“many recent studies have focused on the problem of x”) or highlight a gap in the literature (“while there has been much research on x, few researchers have taken y into consideration”).

Stand-alone literature review

If you are writing a stand-alone paper, give some background on the topic and its importance, discuss the scope of the literature you will review (for example, the time period of your sources), and state your objective. What new insight will you draw from the literature?


Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.

As you write, you can follow these tips:

  • Summarize and synthesize: give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole
  • Analyze and interpret: don’t just paraphrase other researchersadd your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole
  • Critically evaluate: mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources
  • Write in well-structured paragraphs: use transitions and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts

Literature review paragraph example

The example below is taken from the body of a literature review on the relationship between national identity and nature conservation. This paragraph discusses how humanities scholars have approached the concept of wilderness.

Early work in environmental humanities tended to take a sharply critical approach to wilderness, focusing on the cultural construction of supposedly ‘natural’ landscapes. The rise of climate change awareness in the 1980s had been framed by narratives about “the end of nature” (McKibben 1989), in which a once-pristine wilderness is degraded by humans to the point of disappearance. In response to this popular discourse, environmental historian William Cronon critiqued the concept of a pure, pristine nature to be preserved from human influence, arguing that ideas like “wilderness” are themselves products of particular human cultures and histories. In his influential essay ‘The Trouble with Wilderness’ (1995), Cronon traces how the ideal of untouched wilderness, anxiety over its loss, and the political will to preserve it has been central to American national identity, entwined with religious motifs and colonial frontier mythologies. Following Cronon, the racial and class politics of wilderness preservation was a theme taken up by several scholars in the late 1990s and early 2000s, who researched the material effects of conservation politics on indigenous and rural Americans (Catton 1997; Spence 1999; Jacoby 2001). The US National Park system became the dominant paradigm for analyzing relations between conservation, nationhood and nationalism. However, this approach has sometimes led to a narrowly US-centric perspective that fails to engage closely with the meanings and materialities of “wilderness” in different contexts. Recent work has begun to challenge this paradigm and argue for more varied approaches to understanding the socio-political relations between nation and nature.

The example combines the thematic and chronological approaches. This section of the literature review focuses on the theme of wilderness, while the paragraph itself is organized chronologically.


In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.

Dissertation literature review

If the literature review is part of your thesis or dissertation, show how your research addresses gaps and contributes new knowledge, or discuss how you have drawn on existing theories and methods to build a framework for your research.

Stand-alone literature review

If you are writing a stand-alone paper, you can discuss the overall implications of the literature or make suggestions for future research based on the gaps you have identified.

When done writing your literature review, don’t forget to proofread thoroughly before sharing it with others. Our quick guide to proofreading offers some useful tips and tricks!

Is this article helpful?
Shona McCombes

Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.


January 27, 2020 at 1:22 PM

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January 22, 2020 at 3:50 PM

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January 20, 2020 at 3:32 PM

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Clarence Jondolo
January 19, 2020 at 4:20 AM

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Syed Imran Shah
January 7, 2020 at 3:44 PM

Very helpful for new researchers. It will help me a lot in my thesis writing.
In sha Allah!
Stay blessed!


Oyije Alexander
December 28, 2019 at 9:29 PM

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Onesimo Yabang
December 21, 2019 at 12:15 AM

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December 19, 2019 at 7:02 PM

very insightful ...thanks so much. as a novice to social research, beneffited greatly and will definitely write better literature review


December 19, 2019 at 10:15 AM

what's the process of literature review in the thesis and proposal writing?


Ambreen Fatimah
December 17, 2019 at 7:13 AM

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December 9, 2019 at 11:20 AM

How can I use the reference of writer ideas, How can I put it in litrature review or how can I write it ?
can you show me with example?


Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
December 11, 2019 at 12:56 PM

Hi Beyene,

When you reference another writer's ideas in your literature review, you need to either quote or paraphrase and correctly cite the source. The format of the source reference depends on which citation style you are using – you can find lots of examples in our guides to APA, MLA and Chicago style.

Hope that helps!


Qays Kh Nsaif
December 25, 2019 at 2:03 PM

It was very amazing information, i is good for Review and Reseach writing.

Best Rsgards
Dr. Qays Khaleel Nsaif
Al Maare'f University College
December 25, 2019 at 15:05 pm


January 4, 2020 at 6:46 PM

thank you for all information

My questions are:
1.I want to ask you how to use citation and reference on literature review.
2.How can you write literature review by paraphrasing that of other people?


Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
January 7, 2020 at 11:23 AM


In a literature review you should cite your sources the same as you would in any other paper or assignment. This usually includes an in-text citation and a reference list entry, but the exact format depends on which citation style you're following. You can learn more in our guide to citing sources.

Paraphrasing means taking ideas or information from a source and putting them in your own words. You should paraphrase sources throughout your literature review to explain what other researchers have found or argued, as well as giving your own analysis of the sources.

Hope that helps!


November 8, 2019 at 2:05 PM

How about the Research Proposal?


Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
November 8, 2019 at 3:51 PM

Thanks for your question! In the literature review section of a research proposal, you can take a similar approach as you would in a dissertation literature review: focus on connecting the literature to your research questions, and show how your proposed project will contribute to knowledge in your field. There are more tips in our article about how to write a research proposal. Hope that helps!


November 8, 2019 at 12:01 AM

Great overview. Thanks!


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November 6, 2019 at 9:59 AM

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October 22, 2019 at 6:27 PM

A very educative one indead


Henrik Panosyan
October 7, 2019 at 8:05 PM



September 20, 2019 at 11:31 PM

Thanks for a good explanation!


September 19, 2019 at 11:06 AM

Very easy to understand and follow. Thanks a lot.


Rishi Ram Khanal
September 14, 2019 at 8:27 AM

very nice. It's clear, to the point and beautiful source of knowledge. it helped me a lot.
But i want to further more about the thematic review - its meaning and the process of way of dong it.


September 11, 2019 at 2:49 PM

simple and explicit,it really did help me.tanks


johanna mmule maluleke
September 5, 2019 at 7:08 PM

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j m maluleke


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August 23, 2019 at 5:28 AM

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Zia_ud_Din Siddiqui
July 28, 2019 at 7:14 PM

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Godiva Uko
July 25, 2019 at 4:50 AM

Thanks. very useful!



H. Marvelous Richards
July 22, 2019 at 6:45 PM

Thanks, I find this information very helpful to to my academic works in research and writing as whole. It is my hope that you give a clear sample formats so as understand the step by step concept. Once more thanks.


Ubong Umoren
July 13, 2019 at 12:58 PM

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sakhile mbeje
July 10, 2019 at 12:19 PM

This website helped me a lot. Therefore, I am grateful


May 21, 2019 at 9:54 AM

Is this a way how i write research pepar based on literature review??


Rackson Kahabuka
May 14, 2019 at 9:34 PM

The article is useful and adds some crucial guidelines in writing a dissertation.


March 18, 2019 at 10:35 AM

Hi Lucy,
Somebody ask me "what shaped or guided your literature review (LR)?" and I answered, "my LR is guided by my research objectives and research proposal". Is my answer sufficient? Can you kindly give your comment please. Thank you.


Aylin Oz
March 17, 2019 at 4:46 PM

Hi! I've read nearly your whole website, it's brilliant!
Regarding LR, I would like to suggest one thing I have myself been advised to use by a friend: mindmaps. There are a couple of free apps (such as XMind which I loooove) that saved my life and eased my work so much while typing my LR. It helps you structure your articles by topic for example, I put my references and summed up each relevant article in a topic. This made it sooo much easier to organise my work, my ideas, my structure and my writing because all I had to do was to go back on my map instead of going back to the articles.


Raimo Streefkerk
Raimo Streefkerk (Scribbr-team)
March 18, 2019 at 12:28 PM

Hi Aylin,

Thanks for the tip!



mohamed s. sesay
July 22, 2017 at 1:06 AM

nice and exicting but can you assist me with literatures on correctional centres?


Lucy Vleeshouwers
Lucy Vleeshouwers (Scribbr-team)
July 28, 2017 at 7:05 PM

Hi Mohamed,
Thank you for your question.
Unfortunately we can't help you with this question, as it is too specific.
Sorry about that!
Kind regards,


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