How to write an essay introduction

A good introduction paragraph is both engaging and informative. The main goals of your introduction are to:

  • Catch your reader’s attention.
  • Give background on your topic.
  • Present your thesis—the central point of your essay.

This introduction example is taken from our interactive essay example on the history of Braille.

Essay introduction example

The invention of Braille marked a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots, widely used today by blind and visually impaired people, was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new; Braille adapted and simplified existing methods, but his was the first writing system designed specifically for blind people’s needs. Despite initial resistance from sighted people, it eventually became central to blind people’s education and autonomy. By providing unprecedented access to information and culture, Braille was instrumental in transforming the social status of blindness, but its success depended on mainstream acceptance by sighted teachers, and this process was shaped by broader debates about disabled people’s place in society.

Step 1: Hook your reader

Your first sentence sets the tone for the whole essay, so spend some time on writing an effective hook.

Avoid long, dense sentences — start with something clear, concise and catchy that will spark your reader’s curiosity.

The hook should lead the reader into your essay, giving a sense of the topic you’re writing about and why it’s interesting. Avoid overly broad claims or plain statements of fact.

Examples: Writing a good hook

Take a look at these examples of weak hooks and learn how to improve them.

  • Braille was an extremely important invention.
  • The invention of Braille marked a major turning point in the history of disability.

The first sentence is a dry fact; the second sentence is more interesting, making a bold claim about exactly why the topic is important.

  • The internet is defined as “a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities.”
  • The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education.

Avoid using a dictionary definition as your hook, especially if it’s an obvious term that everyone knows. The improved example here is still broad, but it gives us a much clearer sense of what the essay will be about.

  • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a famous book from the nineteenth century.
  • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale about the dangers of scientific advancement.

Instead of just stating a fact that the reader already knows, the improved hook here tells us about the mainstream interpretation of the book, implying that this essay will offer a different interpretation.

Step 2: Give background information

Next, give your reader the context they need to understand your topic and argument. Depending on the subject of your essay, this might include:

  • Historical, geographical, or social context
  • An outline of the debate you’re addressing
  • A summary of relevant theories or research about the topic
  • Definitions of key terms

The information you give should be broad but clearly focused and relevant to your argument.
Don’t give too much detail — you can mention points that you will return to later, but save your evidence and interpretation for the main body of the essay.

How much space you need for background depends on your topic and the scope of your essay. In our Braille example, we take a couple of sentences to introduce the topic and sketch the social context that the essay will address:

Example: Background information
The writing system of raised dots, widely used today by blind and visually impaired people, was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new; Braille adapted and simplified existing methods, but his was the first writing system designed specifically for blind people’s needs. Despite initial resistance from sighted people, it eventually became central to blind people’s education and autonomy.

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Step 3: Present your thesis statement

Now it’s time to narrow your focus and show exactly what you want to say about the topic. This is your thesis statement — a sentence or two that sums up your overall argument.

This is the most important sentence in your introduction. A  good thesis isn’t just a statement of fact, but a claim that requires evidence and explanation.

The goal is to clearly convey your own position in a debate or your central point about a topic.

Example: Thesis statement
By providing unprecedented access to information and culture, Braille was instrumental in transforming the social status of blindness, but its success depended on mainstream acceptance by sighted teachers, and this process was shaped by broader debates about disabled people’s place in society.

Our thesis statement maps out the two main points that the essay will argue for: Braille’s importance in changing blind people’s status, and how this was related to broader debates about disability.

Step 4: Check and revise

As you research and write, your argument might change focus or direction as you learn more.

For this reason, it’s often a good idea to wait until later in the writing process before you write the introduction paragraph — it can even be the very last thing you write.

When you’ve finished writing the essay body and conclusion, you should return to the introduction and check that it matches the content of the essay.

It’s especially important to make sure your thesis statement accurately represents what you do in the essay. If your argument has gone in a different direction than planned, tweak your thesis statement to match what you actually say.

You can use the checklist below to make sure your introduction does everything it’s supposed to.

Checklist: Essay introduction

0 / 5

Well done!

You have a strong introduction - now make sure the rest of your essay is just as good.

Learn more about writing essay paragraphs

More examples of essay introductions

This introduction to an argumentative essay sets up the debate about the internet and education, and then clearly states the position the essay will argue for.

Argumentative essay introduction

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

This introduction to a short expository essay leads into the topic (the invention of the printing press) and states the main point the essay will explain (the effect of this invention on European society).

Expository essay introduction

In many ways, the invention of the printing press marked the end of the Middle Ages. The medieval period in Europe is often remembered as a time of intellectual and political stagnation. Prior to the Renaissance, the average person had very limited access to books and was unlikely to be literate. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for much less restricted circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation.

This introduction to a literary analysis essay, about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, starts by describing a simplistic popular view of the story, and then states how the author will give a more complex analysis of the text’s literary devices.

Literary analysis essay introduction

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale. Arguably the first science fiction novel, its plot can be read as a warning about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, and in popular culture representations of the character as a “mad scientist”, Victor Frankenstein represents the callous, arrogant ambition of modern science. However, far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to gradually transform our impression of Frankenstein, portraying him in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as.

Frequently asked questions about the essay introduction

What goes in an essay introduction?

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

  1. An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
  2. Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
  3. A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay.

What is a hook?

The “hook” is the first sentence of your essay introduction. It should lead the reader into your essay, giving a sense of why it’s interesting.

To write a good hook, avoid overly broad statements or long, dense sentences. Try to start with something clear, concise and catchy that will spark your reader’s curiosity.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay. Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

Why do I need a thesis statement?

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

What is the structure of an essay?

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement, a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Is this article helpful?
Shona McCombes

Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.

10 comments

Melvion Flanagan
October 19, 2020 at 7:42 PM

thank you for the awesome tips

Reply

Nwachukwu Israel Ihechineke
September 5, 2020 at 9:59 AM

Helpful, as I've not written an essay in years and I'm quite confused.

Good Job ❤️

Reply

Joily
August 29, 2020 at 3:38 PM

Understood now, thank you for the tips.

Reply

jaizavier davis
October 20, 2020 at 11:40 PM

thx

Reply

Martinz Jr
August 28, 2020 at 5:05 PM

Thanks for the guide.

Reply

Joy
August 23, 2020 at 10:21 PM

Love it. You have explained it so well. Thank you for this tips.

Reply

mr forkle
May 5, 2020 at 2:34 AM

fanks a lot mis

Reply

Amanda malek
March 30, 2020 at 1:11 PM

Hi
Dear Shona,

I am an MA student ELT . I have written an introduction but need some immediate help for checking my paper.
Would you please have a look in my paper. If so please aware me then l will send you the paper. Thanks in advance
Yours Truly

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
March 30, 2020 at 1:20 PM

Hi Amanda,

You can have your paper checked by a Scribbr editor within 24 hours – upload your document here and choose the services you need to find out the price.

Hope that helps!

Reply

Caitlin
March 16, 2020 at 5:29 AM

What length should an introduction be at year 9?

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