To cite a dictionary definition in APA style, start with the word you’re citing, followed by the publication year, the dictionary name, and the publisher or URL. If there is no publication date, replace it with “n.d.” (“no date”).
APA dictionary citation example
|Format||Entry name. (Year). In Dictionary name (edition). Place: Publisher or Retrieved from URL|
|Reference list||Documentation. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/documentation|
|In-text citation||(“Documentation,” n.d.)|
The format for encyclopedia entries is exactly the same, except that they’re more likely to list authors:
APA encyclopedia citation example
|Reference list||Lariviere, S. (n.d.). Hooded seal. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/animal/hooded-seal|
|In-text citation||(Lariviere, n.d.)|
Continue reading: How to cite a dictionary or encyclopedia in APA Style
To cite a movie in APA Style, list the film’s producer(s) and director as authors and the production studio as publisher. The title is written in sentence case and italicized, followed by the label “Motion picture” in square brackets.
The in-text citation includes the last names of the producer(s) and the year. If you are referring to a specific quote or scene from the movie, add a timestamp to direct the reader to the relevant part.
APA movie citation
|APA format||Producer Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Film title [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.|
|Reference list||Carroll, G., Giler, D., & Hill, W. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.|
|First in-text citation||(Carroll, Giler, & Hill, 1979, 0:45:14)|
|Subsequent in-text citations||(Carroll et al., 1979, 1:20:43)|
Continue reading: How to cite a movie in APA
In APA Style, a personal communication is any source that is not publicly accessible. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list.
Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2015).
Continue reading: Personal communications in APA style
In academic writing, whenever you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work or draw on their ideas, you need to cite the original source.
Wikipedia is a useful source of background information that students often use in the early stages of research. However, when you’re writing your paper, it’s usually better to seek out a more reliable source and cite that instead.
If you’re sure you want to cite Wikipedia, make sure to correctly format the citation according to the citation style you’re following. There are many different styles of citation: APA, MLA, and Chicago style are three of the most commonly used.
Continue reading: How to cite Wikipedia
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper, magazine, or dictionary), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end.
Use the buttons below to explore the format.
Scribbr APA Citation Generator
Continue reading: How to cite a website in APA style
Newspaper articles are cited much like other periodical sources in APA style, with the specific publication date included if available, and the name of the newspaper written in italics.
Print newspaper citations include a page number or range; online newspaper citations include a URL.
Using the buttons below, you can explore how to cite an online newspaper article with one or more authors.
With the APA Citation Generator, you can automatically create citations for print or online newspaper articles and build your reference list.
Generate an APA newspaper citation
Continue reading: How to cite a newspaper article in APA Style
A book citation in APA Style always includes the author’s name, the publication year, the book title, and the publisher. Use the interactive tool to see examples:
Interactive APA book citation example
Note that the format is slightly different for reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias.
You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to generate your APA book citations. Just paste the ISBN or DOI and the generator retrieves all the necessary information.
Scribbr APA Citation Generator
Continue reading: How to cite a book in APA
An APA Style citation for a journal article includes the usual elements of an APA citation, plus the volume and issue number, the page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format.
You can also use the Scribbr Citation Generator to generate your APA journal article citations. All you need is the URL or DOI of the journal article. With the click of a button, the generator retrieves all the necessary information.
Scribbr APA Citation Generator
Continue reading: How to cite a journal article in APA Style
Textual analysis is a broad term for various research methods used to describe, interpret and understand texts. All kinds of information can be gleaned from a text – from its literal meaning to the subtext, symbolism, assumptions, and values it reveals.
The methods used to conduct textual analysis depend on the field and the aims of the research. It often aims to connect the text to a broader social, political, cultural, or artistic context.
Continue reading: A quick guide to textual analysis
The Bible is cited differently from other books in Chicago style. Biblical citations can appear either in the text, in parentheses, or in footnotes or endnotes, but the Bible is not included in your bibliography or reference list.
A Bible citation always includes the book, chapter, and verse. It sometimes also includes the version of the Bible you are using.
Chicago Bible citation examples
|In the text||In Job 4:8 (NIV), Eliphaz states that “those who plow evil and those who sow trouble reap it.”|
|In a parenthetical citation||Eliphaz tells Job that “those who plow evil and those who sow trouble reap it” (Job 4:8 [NIV]).|
|In a footnote||1. Job 4:8 (NIV).|
Continue reading: How to cite from the Bible in Chicago style