APA citation examples

Referencing according to the APA Style can be a difficult task. We have prepared some resources to help you:

Examples APA Style references

Source typeOriginal content
AppsThe APA Style has specific rules for the reference of information from an app or mobile application software. In addition to the name of the person or entity that holds the rights for the app you also have to add in square brackets that it is a mobile application. Mobile applicationAPA-format RightsholderName, (Year). TitleSoftwareProgram (Versionnumber) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Tinder Inc. (2015). Tinder (Version 4.5.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/nl/app/tinder/id547702041?mt=8In the textAccording to the mobile application software 'Tinder' … (Tinder Inc., 2015). Tinder Inc. (2015) suggested in the mobile application software 'Tinder' that … .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Commercial Radio/TVThe reference of a commercial from radio/TV according to the APA Style is different from the one for a Radio/TV-show. Commercial Radio/TVAPA-format LastNameWriter, Initials (writer). And/or LastNameDirector, Initials (director). And/or NameCompany. (DateCommercialAired). TitleCommercial [Television or radio commercial]. City, State/Country: Television Network or Radio Station. Optional: Retrieved From http://WebAddressIn reference list Scott, J. T. (director). (2014). Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial [Television Commercial]. St. Louis, MO: Fox. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQB7QRyF4p4In the textAccording to the Television commercial  'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' … (Scott, 2014). Scott (2006) suggested in the TV commercial 'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' that … .
Conference paperProceedings are contributions to scientific conferences, congresses, symposiums or meetings. They often are published bundled and are formally published in a book or in periodicals. This represents a report about what has been discussed during a particular conference. The APA Style has specific rules for the notation of proceedings or conference papers. Chapter of proceedings in a bookAPA-format AuthorLastname, Initials. (Year). TitleConferencePaper. In Editor1Initial. Editor1LastName & Editor2Initial. Editor2Lastname. (Ed.), TitleProceedings (pp. Firstpage-Lastpage). City, State/Country: NamePublisher. (instead of the publisher you can also use the URL or DOI)In reference list Katz, I., Gabayan, K. & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu & P. Scheunders (Red.), Lecture notes in Computer Science: Vol 4678. Advanced concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97-108). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74607-2_9In the textResearch suggests that ... (Katz, Gabayan & Aghajan, 2007). Katz, Gabayan and Aghajan (2007) found that ... .Open example in the APA Citation Generator  Paper from online proceedingAPA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleConferencePaper. TitleProceedings, volume, Firstpage-LastPage. https://doi.org/DoiNumber (instead of using the DOI, you can also use the URl: "Retrieved from http://Website")In reference list Tattersall, I. (2009). Human origins: Out of Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 16018-16021. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903207106In the textThe paper from the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America suggests that ... (Tattersall, 2009). In his research Tattersall (2009) found that ... .
DictionaryTo define a word in your thesis you can use a dictionary. The APA Style has two different notations for the reference of a dictionary. For the right reference you have to distinguish between an online and a printed dictionary. Printed dictionaryAPA-format Searchterm. (year). In TitleDictionary (edition). CityPublisher, Country/State: PublisherIn reference list Chardonnay. (2005). In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11e ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.In the textChardonnay can be defined as: "..." (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005). According to the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005) Chardonnay can be defined as: "...". Online dictionaryAPA-format Searchterm. (year). In TitleDictionary (edition). Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Chardonnay. (2005). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11 ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/thesisIn the textChardonnay can be defined as: "..." (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005). According to the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005) Chardonnay can be defined as: "...".
Dissertation of another studentYou can use other theses as a source for your own dissertation. Take into account that theses often still contain mistakes and are not always a reliable source. So don’t base your dissertation too much on other theses. According to the APA Style you also have to add to your reference that it is a dissertation of another student.  Dissertation of another studentAPA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleThesisOrDissertation (Thesis or Master’s dissertation). Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Huijg, N. T. (2015). The Determinants of the Dutch Demand for Military Spending (Master’s dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/30207In the textAccording to earlier research in a master's dissertation ... (Huijg, 2015). Huijg (2015) states in his master's dissertation that ... .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
FacebookWhen referring to Facebook you always have to take the privacy policy of a social media into account. According to the APA Style you can handle Facebook as a normal internet source and add the type of source in squared brackets. FacebookAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day). TitleFacebookUpdate [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Zuckerberg, m. (2015, July 1). As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satiellites to connect [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102217102231151In the textAccording to the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' … (Zuckerberg, 2015). Zuckerberg (2015) suggested in the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' that … .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Forum postWhen using a message or post from a forum or online discussion group, you have to take the following APA Style into account. Forum-postAPA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. [Alias]. (Year, Month Day). TitleDiscussionThread [Type Message/Reaction]. Message posted to http://WebAdressIn reference list Chan, R. (2012, December 16). WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap [Online Forum Post]. Message posted to https://www.linkedin.com/grp/post/114512-196724588?trk=groups-post-b-titleIn the textAccording to the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' … (Chan, 2012). Chan (2012) suggested in the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' that … .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Internal documents (Intranet)When using sources from an (internship-) company like internal memos, internal company data, guidelines, transcripts or other sources from the intranet, the APA Style has specific rules.It is possible that some readers of your dissertation have access to the internal data but others don’t. When you’re doing an internship for a company, your boss will have access to the data but your professor at the University won’t. Not every reader has access to the source You can handle the source as a normal internet source. This means, you can record the short version in your text and the complete version in your reference list. Next to that you add a footnote, which explains to the readers that the source is from the intranet and may not be accessible to everyone.  Internal documents (and the reader has access to these documents)APA-format NameOrganisation. (Year, Month day). NameDocument [TypeDocument]. Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Apple. (2016, September 18). Guidelines employees [Guidelines]. Retrieved from intranet.apple.com/newsupdate/guideline.pdfIn the textInternal documents show that … (Apple, 2014)1. Internal documents from Apple (2014)1 show that … .Open example in the APA Citation GeneratorExample - Footnote with an intranet sourceNo link available If there is no link available for the source, we advise you to make use of the APA rules for ‘personal communication’. This means you don’t have to record the source in your reference list. Important internal document If the document plays an important role in your dissertation, you could also add it to the appendix (ask the company first, if that's okay). Instead of recording the source according to the APA Style, you only refer to the appendix.
InterviewThere are two main factors to consider when referring to interviews in a dissertation using the APA reference style:Did you conduct the interview yourself? Are you referring to an interview conducted by someone else?I conducted the interview myself Interviews in the appendices If you have included the interview transcripts in the appendices, simply refer to the relevant appendices when mentioning information from the interview in the body of the text. Example: referring to appendix in textAccording to interviewee x (Appendix 1), …For example, interviewee x described how …. (Appendix 1).Interviews not in the appendices If the interviews are not included in the appendices, you should refer to the interview as “personal communication.” This indicates that the documents or transcribed interviews are not available to third parties.Even if you did not create a transcript of the interview, you must reference any information shared that you gained via this method as “personal communication.” Example: how to cite and reference “personal communication”Literature list Do not include a reference to an untranscribed interview in the literature listIn textAn interview with the head of department showed that … (P. Bankers, personal communication, 3 March 2015). According to P. Bankers (personal communication, 3 March 2015), the problem can be solved by …I am using an interview conducted by someone else You may wish to include information from an interview conducted by someone else in your research. For example, an interview with an expert in a certain field or one from an online article. Interviews in magazines/online articles If you are referencing an interview in a magazine or an online article, follow the normal rules for paraphrasing or quoting from such a source.In this case, the person who wrote the article (most often the interviewer) is the author. You do not include the name of the person interviewed in the citation or in the literature list.It may be less clear to the reader exactly who said what when you are referencing an interview conducted by someone else. The following examples show how to make sure the ideas are clearly attributed. Example: online article with an interview you may wish to quote Christian Davenport is a journalist for the Washington Post. He wrote an article featuring quotes from an interview with NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. Example: quoting with unclear attribution The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory: “a big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). Here you can see that it is unclear that Bridenstine said this, rather than Davenport. You can solve cases such as this in the following way: Example: clearly attributing a quote to the original source The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory, as highlighted by NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine in an article published by the Washington Post: “a big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). The attribution is now clear, as the quote has now been introduced with the name of the person who said it. Example: referencing an interview in an online articleAPA format Author name, initials. (year, day month). Article title. Name of publication (page number, if available). Retrieved from: URLLiterature list Davenport, C (2018, June 5). NASA’s new administrator says he’s talking to companies about taking over operations of the International Space Station. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2018/06/05/nasas-new-administrator-says-hes-talking-to-companies-to-take-over-the-international-space-stationIn-text citation NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine confirmed that the United States would like to return their main space operations to US land: “a big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20).
Lecture slides/ handoutsThe APA reference for PowerPoint-slides and handouts depends on the accessibility. Are the slides accessible for the reader? Slides are only available via: Blackboard, N@tschool, Moodle, Magister etc. When the slides are part of a digital study database, you can handle them almost the same as a intranet source. In this case you just add a footnote in which you make clear that the source is only accessible via the digital study database. Lecture slides (not publicly accessible)APA-format AuthorLastname, Initials. (Year, month day). Title of the document [Type document]. Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Ribbers, P. G. (2015, August 4). Introduction in ethics [Slides]. Retrieved from http://public-sheets.uvt.com/ethics/week1/class1In the textResearch suggests … (Ribbers, 2015)1. Ribbers (2015)1 found that… .In the footnote 1 Source derived from Blackboard Uvt (not publicly available).Slides publicly accessible Is the source publicly accessible, then the reference according to the APA Style is the same as for a normal internet source. Lecture slides (publicly accessible)APA-format AuthorLastname, Initials. (Year, month day). Title of the document [Type document]. Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Ribbers, P. (2015, August 4). Introduction in ethics [Slides]. Retrieved from http://public-sheets.uvt.com/ethics/week1/class1In the textResearch suggests … (Ribbers, 2015). Ribbers (2015) found that … .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
OrationThe oration is a speech given by the professor, when he or she takes office.When you want to refer to an oration according to the APA Style , you first have to find out if the oration is published or not.The oration is published It is common that a professor publishes his oration. That happens mostly via a pdf-document, which you can download from the internet.In that case you use the same notation as for a book. In square brackets you add [oration] to the reference. OrationAPA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleBook [Oration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Hagoort, G. (2007). Cultureel ondernemerschap [Oration]. Retrieved from http://binoq.nl/lib/Documenten/ cultureel%20ondernemerschap/Oratie_Hagoort.pdfIn the textResearch suggests that … (Hagoort, 2007). In the oration Hagoort (2007) found that … .Open example in the APA Citation GeneratorThe oration is not published When the oration is not published, the speech is not accessible for a third party. In that case you can use the APA Style for “personal communication”. Personal communicationAPA-format Don't record in the reference listIn reference list Don't record in the reference listIn the textFrom the oration it was obvious that … (E. Smet, personal communication, September 22, 2015). E. Smet (personal communication, September 22, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .
PatentThe reference of a patent is different from the normal APA Style. The APA reference for a patent consists of four parts: the name of the inventor, the year in which the patent is requested, the unique patent identification number and the name of the patent office.PatentAPA-format InventorLastName, Initials. (YearOfPatentIssue). PatentIdentifier No.. State, city: PatentOfficeNameIn reference list Fry, A. L. (1993). U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.In the textAccording to a patent on adhesive sheet material ... (U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299, 1993). A technique in Patent U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299 (1994) shows that ... .
PDF documentIt is possible to use PDF documents as a source in your thesis. For the right APA reference you first have to determine which kind of source it is. PDF documents can be books, reports, articles etc.For the right reference according to the APA Style you can find more information on the following sites:Book Journal Report
Photo/ ImageWhen referring to a photo or image according to the APA Style, the source in the reference list will be recorded in the same way as the one for a normal internet source. Behind the title of the source you have to add that the source is a photo/image in square brackets.If the name of the photographer/ artist is unknown, you look to see if the photo is published on a website from an organization. If so, you can assume that the organization is the creator. If not, you can use the title of the photo/image for the name of the creator. If the title is unknown, you give a short description in squared brackets.There are different apa rules if you would like to cite a movie in apa instead of an image.See the following examples if you miss data:Author is unknown. The title is missing.Photo, imageAPA-format PhotographerName, Initials. (Year, Month Day). TitlePhoto [Photograph/Illustration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Stanmeyer, J. (2014, February 26). World Press Photo 2014 [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.worldpressphoto.org/collection/photo/2014/contemporary-issues/john-stanmeyerIn the textThe picture above (Stanmeyer, 2014) shows playful exposure of ... .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Press releaseAccording to the APA Style you can handle the reference of a press release in the same way as a normal internet source. After the title you should add ‘press release’ in square brackets. Press release (online)APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. Or NameOrganization. (Year, Month day). TitlePressRelease [Press release]. Retrieved from: http://WebAddressIn reference list The President’s Office. (2015, August 5). Vice President arrives in Egypt on official trip [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/Index.aspx?lid=11&dcid=15744In the textIn 2015 President Ahmed Adeeb Abdul Ghafoor visited Egypt for x and y (The President’s Office, 2015). The President’s Office (2015) published a press release to ... .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Radio/Tv-showWhen using information from a radio or TV show, you always have to add the producer of the show to your reference. The producer can normally be found on the website of the show. The APA Style for a radio/TV-show is different from the one for a commercial.Example radio-show in APA Style RadioAPA-format LastName, Initials. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer.In reference list Dane, F. T. (DJ). (2015, July 31). Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo [Radio Broadcast]. In P. Franssen (producer). Frank and Friday Show. Hilversum, The Netherlands: Radio 538.In the textAccording to the radio broadcast  'Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo' … (Dane, 2015). Dane (2015) suggested in the radio show 'Frank and Friday Show' that … .Example TV-show in APA Style  TV showAPA-format LastName, Initials. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer.In reference list Attenborough, D. F. (narrator). (2006, November 19). Jungles [TV-show]. In A. Fothergill (executive producer). Planet Earth. London, United Kingdom: BBCIn the textAccording to the documentary  … (Attenborough, 2006). Attenborough (2006) suggested in the documentary 'Jungles' that … .
ReportScientific research is published in scientific journals. If research is conducted by an organization or the government then it will be published in a report. For that the APA Style has a specific notation. ReportAPA-format NameOrganization or AuthorLastName, Initials. (YearofPublication). ReportTitle. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Royal Bank of Scotland. (2015). Annual Report and Accounts 2014. Retrieved from http://investors.rbs.com/~/media/Files/R/RBS-IR/2014-reports/annual-report-2014.pdf In the textRecent research suggests that ... (Royal Bank of Scotland, 2015). In a recent study Royal Bank of Scotland (2015) found that ... .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
SoftwareAccording to the APA Style you don’t have to record ‘’standard software’’ like Microsoft Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS, in your reference list.If you use special software, you have to record it. In that case remember to record the reference using the correct APA Style.When an individual person holds the rights for the software, the name of that individual is recorded as the author. Otherwise the software has to be handled as an unwritten document. In that case you can use the title of the software for the author’s name. If the software is online accessible, use the URL instead of the name of the publisher and the location.Software with author  Software with authorAPA-format RightsholderName. (Year). TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list JetBrains s.r.o. (2015). JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3) [Software]. Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/In the textAccording to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (JetBrains s.r.o., 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the Software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' that … .Open example in the APA Citation GeneratorSoftware without author  Software without authorAPA-format TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. (Year). Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Super software (8.0.3) [Software] (2015). Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/In the textAccording to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (Super software, 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the software 'Super software (8.0.3)' that … .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Statistic databaseWhen using specific data for your dissertation, it is important to know how a dataset (e.g. from Datastream) has to be recorded according to the APA Style. In that case you use the notation for a normal internet source and write ‘dataset’ after the title in square brackets.Statistic databaseAPA-format NameDatabase. (YearOfPublication, Month Day). TitleDatabase [Data set]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Central Bureau for Statistics. (2015, July 28). Statistics Netherlands: Dutch exports to Russia almost reduced by half [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/the­mas/internationale-handel/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2015/nederlandse-export-naar-rusland-bijna-gehalveerd.htmIn the textData on export to Russia suggests that … (Central Bureau for Statistics, 2015). Data on export to Russia from Central Bureau for Statistics (2015) suggests that … .Open example in the APA Citation Generator
TwitterWhen using information from Twitter, make sure you use the right APA reference. You should also take the privacy policy of Twitter-posts into account. TwitterAPA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. [Twitterhandle]. (Year, Month Day). ContentTweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Gates, B. (2015, July 23). For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/billgates/status/623982190750269443In the textAccording to the Tweet 'For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6' … (Gates, 2015). Gates (2015) suggested in the Tweet 'For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6' that …Open example in APA Citation Generator
WikipediaWikipedia can be a useful and fast tool to gain knowledge about a topic. However, it is not desirable to use Wikipedia as a source for your dissertation. If you want to refer to Wikipedia anyway, according to the APA Style you need to use the same notation as for a normal internet source .Because Wikipedia articles can change from time to time, it’s important that you record the date on which you retrieved the Wikipedia page.Wikipedia articleAPA-format WikipediaEntry. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved Month day, Year, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/entryIn reference list Thesis. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 6, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThesisIn the textAccording to Wikipedia the definition of 'thesis' is different in every country (Wikipedia, n.d., para 1). According to Wikipedia (n.d., para 1) the definition of 'thesis' is different in every country.Open example in the APA Citation Generator
SurveyIf you’re referring to your own survey research (and its results), you don’t normally need to use a formal APA Style citation. What you do instead depends on which of the following is true:Your survey/results are in an appendix to your dissertation Your survey/results are not in an appendix to your dissertationThe survey/results are in an appendix In this case, just refer to the appendix that contains the survey. Example: Referencing a survey in the appendixThe survey asked respondents... (Appendix 1).Overall, the survey showed that men more often... (Appendix 1).The survey/results are not in an appendix Since you can’t refer to an appendix, you should instead refer to a “personal communication”. Using this term indicates that the survey/results are not available to third parties – including the reader. Personal communicationAPA Format Not included in the literature list.In the literature list Not included in the literature list.In the textThe survey showed that... (B. Swaen, personal communication, November 3, 2016).We recommend that you always include your survey and its results in an appendix. If that isn’t possible for some reason, you can avoid having to use “personal communication” by going for the Intranet solution.
How to cite a book in APAA basic book reference in APA Style includes the author’s name, the book title, and information about the publisher (name and location). If there are translators or editors, these are also included. Use the buttons below to explore the format: Interactive APA book exampleYou can also use the free APA Citation Generator to create your book citations. Just paste the ISBN or DOI and the generator autofills all the necessary fields.[citation-widget style="apa" type="book"]Ebooks and online books in APA To cite a book you accessed online, replace information about the publisher with information about the book’s format and location online. Books accessed on e-readers A citation of an ebook (i.e. a book accessed on an e-reader) includes the ebook format in square brackets. Add a DOI where available, and otherwise link to the page where the ebook can be purchased or accessed.Since ebooks sometimes do not include page numbers, APA recommends using other methods of identifying a specific passage in your in-text citations – for example, a chapter or section title or a paragraph number.Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title [ebook format information]. Retrieved from URL or https://doi.org/xxxxxxExample Burns, A. (2018). Milkman [Kindle version]. Retrieved from https://amzn.to/2ObKrVfIn-text citation (Burns, 2018, para. 15)Books accessed online A book accessed through a web browser (for example, in PDF form or on Google Books) follows a slightly different format:Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from URL or https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxExample Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2In-text citation (Brück, 2009, p. 15)7th edition changes The 7th edition of the APA manual provides an updated format for ebooks and online books. Ebook format information is no longer included, the name of the publisher is included, and the words “Retrieved from” are no longer necessary before a URL:Burns, A. (2018). Milkman. Faber & Faber. https://amzn.to/2ObKrVfCiting a chapter from an edited book When citing a particular chapter from a book containing texts by various authors (e.g. a collection of essays), begin the citation with the author of the chapter and mention the book’s editor(s) later in the reference. A page range identifies the chapter’s location in the book:Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Last name (Ed. or Eds.), Book title (pp. page range). Publisher. DOI if availableExample Belsey, C. (2006). Poststructuralism. In S. Malpas & P. Wake (Eds.), The Routledge companion to critical theory (pp. 51–61). New York, NY: Routledge.In-text citation (Belsey, 2006, p. 55).Multivolume books Citing a single volume When citing from one volume of a multivolume book, the format varies slightly depending on whether each volume has a title or just a number.If the volume has a specific title, this should simply be written as part of the title in your reference list entry: Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot: Vol. 1. Collected and uncollected poems (Ricks, C., & McCue, J., Eds.). London, England: Faber & Faber. If the volume is only numbered, not titled, the volume number is not italicized and appears in parentheses after the title: Dylan, B. (2005). Chronicles (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Citing a multivolume book as a whole If you refer to the book in general, you may wish to cite the whole thing rather than a specific volume. In this case, individual volume titles are not included even if they do exist: Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot (Vols. 1–2) (Ricks, C., & McCue, J., Eds.). London, England: Faber & Faber.Where to find the information for an APA book citation All the information you need to cite a book can usually be found on the title page and the copyright page:The APA reference list entry for the book above would look like this: Butler, C. (2002). Postmodernism: A very short introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.7th edition changes This article follows the 6th edition of the APA manual, which requires including the city and state (or country, if outside the US) where the publisher of the book is located.The 7th edition, published in 2019, removes this requirement. If you are following the 7th edition, you can just write the name of the publisher with no location information. For example:Butler, C. (2002). Postmodernism: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.[FAQ-article]
How to cite a journal article in APA StyleA basic journal article reference in APA Style includes the usual elements plus the volume and issue number, the page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format.You can also use the free APA Citation Generator to create your citations. All you need is the URL or DOI of the journal article. With the click of a button, the generator retrieves all the necessary information. [citation-widget style="apa" type="journal"]Where to find information for an APA journal citation When viewing a journal article online, the required information can usually be found on the access page.Linking to online journal articles A DOI should always be used where available. Some databases do not list one, but you may still find one by looking for the same article on another database. You don’t need to include the name of the database in your citation.If no DOI is available and the article was accessed through a database, do not include a URL.If the article is not from a database, but from another website (e.g. the journal's own website), you should ideally use a stable URL: this is often provided under a “share” button. Otherwise, use the URL from your browser. Citing unpublished journal articles When citing from an article that has not yet been formally published, the format varies depending on whether or not it has already been submitted to a journal. Unpublished article The text of an article which has not yet appeared online or in publication (i.e. which is only available directly from the author) should be cited as an "unpublished article." The title is italicized and information about the author’s university is included if available:Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Unpublished article, Department Name, University Name.Example Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children. Unpublished article, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.In-text citation (Smith & Davis, 2019)Article submitted for publication An article which has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as an “article submitted for publication.” The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included:Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Article submitted for publication, Department Name, University Name.Example Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children. Article submitted for publication, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.In-text citation (Smith & Davis, 2019)7th edition changes In the 7th edition of the APA manual, these two formats are slightly different. In both cases, the information appears in the same place, but in square brackets and followed by a period:Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children [Unpublished article]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.Article in press An article which has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as “in press.” Here, the name of the journal is included, university information is omitted, and “in press” is written in place of the year (both in the reference list and the in-text citation):Format Last name, Initials. (in press). Article title. Journal Name.Example Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (in press). Language acquisition among autistic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology.In-text citation (Smith & Davis, in press)Special issue of a journal If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author’s name and article title:Format Last name, Initials. (Ed. or Eds.) (Year). Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Name, Issue(Volume).Example Pollak, S. D., Camras, L. A., & Cole, P. M. (Eds.) (2019). New perspectives on the development of human emotion [Special issue]. Developmental Psychology, 55(9).Note that if you want to cite an individual article from the special issue, it can just be cited as a regular article.[FAQ-article]
How to cite a movie in APAA movie or documentary can be a useful source for your paper. When you decide to use one of these sources, you need to know how to cite a movie in APA style.To cite a movie or documentary correctly, you must use an in-text citation and include the source in the reference list.Be aware that if you would like to cite a Youtube video, there are other rules you need to follow. APA movie citation Citing a documentary or movie in APA StyleAPA format ProducerLastName, Initials. (Producer), & DirectorLastName, Initials. (Director). (Year). MovieTitle [Motion Picture]. Country: NameStudio.Reference list Finerman, W., Starkey, S. P., Tisch, S. (Producers), & Zemeckis, R. (Director). (1994). Forrest Gump [Motion Picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.In-text citationThe movie Forrest Gump by Finerman, Starkey, Tisch, and Zemeckis (1994) is an example of … . Forrest Gump invented the smiley (Finerman, Starkey, Tisch, & Zemeckis, 1994)Explanations and exceptionsDepending on the number of producers and directors, there are different APA Style rules. Read more about how to cite sources with multiple authors. When a person is both a producer and director, indicate this by adding “(Producer/Director)” after their name instead of only “(Producer).” Always italicize the movie title. Always use [Motion Picture] to indicate the movie format, except when the movie is on DVD [DVD] or VHS [VHS]. If the movie or documentary is produced by Netflix (Netflix original) or another streaming service, you should replace the country and name of the production studio with “Retrieved from [source]”. E.g. “Retrieved from https://www.netflix.com.”Where to find the information to cite a movie The information needed to cite the movie can be easily found on IMDb (Internet Movie Database).Search for the movie using the title (e.g. ‘Forrest Gump’). The release year is displayed right after the title. In this case, 1994 Above the title, there is a tab called “Full cast and crew.” Here you can find the producer(s) and director(s).The director (Robert Zemeckis) is shown on top Below the cast you will find the producers (Wendy Finerman, Steve Starkey and Steve Tisch). You don’t need to cite the co-producers, line producers or associate producers.Now, go back to the movie’s overview page and scroll down to the heading “details.” Here you find the country of origin (USA) and the production company/ studio. In this example it is “Paramount Pictures.”
How to cite a newspaper article in APA StyleNewspaper articles are cited much like other periodical sources in APA style, with the specific publication date included if available, and the name of the newspaper written in italics.Print newspaper citations include a page number or range; online newspaper citations include a URL.Using the buttons below, you can explore how to cite an online newspaper article with one or more authors.With the APA Citation Generator, you can automatically create citations for print or online newspaper articles and build your reference list. Generate an APA newspaper citationCiting newspapers in print Printed newspapers are sometimes divided into sections, which are identified by a letter before the page number (e.g. A1, B4). Always include the letters when page numbers are formatted in this way.Newspaper articles may also appear on discontinuous pages (for example, an article which begins on the front page but continues on page 20). Make sure to only cite the relevant pages, separating different pages and page ranges with commas: Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. Note that with newspapers, unlike with other source types, APA requires you to write “p.” (for a single page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before page numbers in your reference list entry.7th edition updates The 7th edition of the APA manual recommends omitting “p.” or “pp.” and just writing the numbers alone in the reference list entry, as with other source types.Citing newspaper articles accessed online If you accessed the article on the newspaper's website, include a URL instead of page numbers. APA recommends linking to the homepage rather than the specific article, because article links can stop working: Schwartz, F., & McBride, C. (2019, November 18). Trump administration says Israeli settlements aren’t illegal. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://wsj.com7th edition updates The 7th edition instead recommends linking directly to the article, and omitting the words “Retrieved from”:Schwartz, F., & McBride, C. (2019, November 18). Trump administration says Israeli settlements aren’t illegal. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/trump-administration-to-say-israeli-settlements-arent-illegal-11574104691Online-only news sites Don’t use the newspaper citation format for articles on news sites that are not linked to a print newspaper, such as Reuters or BBC News.Instead, use the format of a website citation. The URL links directly to the article, and the name of the site is not included: Ahmad, J., & Shalizi, H. (2019, November 19). U.S., Australian hostages freed by Afghan Taliban in swap. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban/u-s-australian-hostages-freed-by-afghan-taliban-in-swap-idUSKBN1XT0GF7th edition updates The 7th edition introduces a specific format for online-only news sites. The article title is italicized, the name of the site is included (not italicized), and the link is not preceded by “Retrieved from”:Ahmad, J., & Shalizi, H. (2019, November 19). U.S., Australian hostages freed by Afghan Taliban in swap. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban/u-s-australian-hostages-freed-by-afghan-taliban-in-swap-idUSKBN1XT0GF[FAQ-article]
How to cite a website in APA styleAPA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper or magazine), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end.Use the buttons below to explore the format.[citation-widget style="apa" type="website"]Citing an entire website When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site: One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos. For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page. However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry. How to cite online articles Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears. Articles from online versions of newspapers and magazines Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL. Give the homepage URL instead of the specific article, as the latter is more likely to change over time. MacGillis, A. (2019, November 11). The case against Boeing. The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/7th edition updates The 7th edition of the APA manual recommends linking directly to the specific article. It also omits the words “Retrieved from”:MacGillis, A. (2019, November 11). The case against Boeing. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/11/18/the-case-against-boeingArticles from blogs Citations of blogs include the words “Blog post” and the article URL. The name of the blog is not included: Alexander, S. (2019, November 13). Autism and intelligence: Much more than you wanted to know [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://slatestarcodex.com/2019/11/13/autism-and-intelligence-much-more-than-you-wanted-to-know/7th edition updates If you are following the 7th edition, you no longer have to include “[Blog post]” or “Retrieved from”, and you do include the name of the blog in italics:Alexander, S. (2019, November 13). Autism and intelligence: Much more than you wanted to know. Slate Star Codex. https://slatestarcodex.com/2019/11/13/autism-and-intelligence-much-more-than-you-wanted-to-know/Other online articles For articles from other websites, including news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), the name of the site is not mentioned, and the URL links directly to the article: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-504191277th edition updates In the 7th edition, articles from other websites have their titles italicized, and the name of the site is included but not italicized:Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127Websites with no author When a web page does not list any author, replace the author name with the title of the page or article.In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks, and shorten it to the first few words if necessary. APA website citation (no author)Format Article Title. (Year, month day). Retrieved from URLExample Australia fires: 'Catastrophic' alerts in South Australia and Victoria. (2019, November 11). Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-50483410In-text citation ("Australia fires,” 2019)Note that if the source is attributed to a specific organization or company, you should use this as the author name instead. Websites with no date When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” ("no date") in all citations.If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it. APA website citation (no date)Format Author or Organization Name. (n.d.). Article Title. Retrieved month day, year, from URLReference list University of Amsterdam. (n.d.).  About the UvA. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.htmlIn-text citation (University of Amsterdam, n.d.)How to cite from social media7th edition updates Since the 6th edition of the APA manual does not provide guidelines for citing from social media, the information in this section follows the 7th edition.As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound) in square brackets: Eno, B. (2019, September 21). Last night an immersive arts installation by VOICES FOR THE FUTURE was shown at the UN Headquarters, NY. [Images attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/2XfDB4Q On some social media sites, users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets: Dorsey, J. [@jack]. (2018, March 1). We’re committing Twitter to help increase the collective health, openness, and civility of public conversation, and to hold ourselves publicly [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/jack/status/969234275420655616 In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time: Dorsey, J. [@jack]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 14, 2019, from https://twitter.com/jack [FAQ-article]
How to cite a YouTube video | APA StyleYou watched an interesting YouTube video that can serve as a suitable source in your paper. The question is, how do you cite a YouTube video in APA style? In order to properly cite the YouTube video, you need the information highlighted in the screenshot below.Be aware that if you would like to cite a movie in apa, there are other rules you need to follow.Example of how to cite a YouTube video Citing a YouTube video with only a screen nameAPA-format ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). TitleVideo [YouTube]. Retrieved from URLReference list Bloomberg. (2014, June 10). Elon Musk: How I Became The Real ‘Iron Man' [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mh45igK4Esw&t=1950sIn-text citationAccording to the YouTube video “Elon Musk: How I Became The Real ‘Iron Man’ … (Bloomberg, 2014). Bloomberg (2014) suggested in the YouTube video ‘Elon Musk: How I Became The Real ‘Iron Man’’ that … .Citing a YouTube video with the creator's real name and screen nameAPA-format Creator'sLastName, Initial. [ScreenName]. (Year, Month Day). TitleVideo [YouTube]. Retrieved from URLReference list Neistat, C. [CaseyNeistat]. (2015, October 17). NEW CAR! [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XqsJYk1-yMIn-text citationAccording to the YouTube clip “NEW CAR!” … (Neistat, 2015). Neistat (2015) suggested in the YouTube clip “NEW CAR!” that … .Required information to cite a YouTube video Creator’s real name (optional) On YouTube, the username is easy to find: it’s the name of the channel (e.g. CaseyNeistat). However, sometimes the creator’s real name is also public. If so, you should include it in the citation.If the creator of the video is an organization (e.g. Bloomberg), then you can use the organization name instead of a first and last name. Screen name (name of the YouTube channel) The screen name (i.e. channel name) is shown prominently under every video posted on YouTube. The capitalization (or lack thereof) should be retained in the citation. Video title When citing the video title, use the same capitalization displayed in the original video. Video URL Do not use URL-shortening tools. Shortened URLs often have an expiration date. When the shortened URL expires, it becomes harder for the reader for retrieve the original source. Timestamp (optional) If you’d like to quote a passage in the video, then you can add a timestamp to the citation to help your readers quickly and easily locate the original source.For example, if you quote a passage starting at 4:32 in the YouTube video, then you can include “4:32” in your in-text citation. It will look like this: (Bloomberg, 2014, 4:32). You don’t need to include the timestamp in your reference list entry. How to cite a YouTube channel If you want to cite a YouTube channel instead of a specific video, then you should cite it slightly different. See the example below for the Bloomberg YouTube channel.You start with the name of the YouTube channel followed by “n.d.,” which stands for “no date,” since YouTube channels are always undated. Next, write the name of the tab you would like to cite (e.g. “home” or “about”). The citation ends with the URL of the channel. Citing a YouTube channelAPA-format Channelname. (n.d.). Tab (e.g. Home) [YouTube channel]. Retrieved from URLReference list Bloomberg. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mh45igK4Esw&t=1950sIn-text citationBloomberg (n.d.) posts interesting videos about finance.
Personal communications in APA styleIn APA Style, a personal communication is any source that is not publicly accessible. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list.Example Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2015).What is a personal communication? A personal communication is any source you refer to that the reader will not be able to access – either because it was not recorded, is deliberately kept private for reasons of confidentiality, or is accessible only to a specific group (e.g. members of a particular institution).Because the reader cannot look up these sources independently, APA Style states that it is not appropriate to include them in a reference list. The point of a reference list is to allow the reader to find your sources, so inaccessible sources do not belong there.Some common examples of sources that should be treated as personal communications include:Private conversations, emails, letters and messages Interviews with (and survey responses from) research participants Private social media content Unrecorded performances and lecturesHow to cite personal communications When citing a personal communication in your text, you only need to give the person’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in parentheses: (F. Davidson, personal communication, January 12, 2017) If it’s relevant or important to the reader’s understanding, you can specify the type of communication involved: When contacted for comment, Johnson stated that the controversy was “absurd” (H. Johnson, email, March 5, 2019). During the performance, the term “Anthropocene” was used repeatedly (J. Wilson, performance, March 13, 2018). Private messages on social media are always personal communications. Other social media content should also be cited as personal communication if it is not public – that is, if it can only be accessed by members of a specific group or friends of a specific user: Members of the online community followed the controversy closely, with one user referring to it as a “media circus” (G. Richards, comment in a private Facebook group, April 25, 2018). Citing your research participants Quotes from your research participants, such as interviewees and survey respondents, are also treated as personal communications, but they are often anonymized for reasons of confidentiality.There are several ways of handling this. Where it is not important to distinguish participants from each other, you can simply refer to them without any specific attribution: One participant stated that… Where more detail is appropriate, you might want to distinguish participants by personal characteristics like age, profession, or gender: (male participant, 52 years old) Where it’s important to be able to refer to specific participants, you can use false names (as long as you clarify somewhere that this is what you’re doing) or codenames: Participant D stated that… A participant named John (names used throughout are pseudonyms) referred to… Note that it’s usually unnecessary to include dates in these references, as the dates of the interviews should generally be specified in your methodology section.

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