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Examples of APA Style

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Examples APA Style references

Source typeOriginal content
AppsThe APA Style has specific rules for the reference of information from an app or mobile application software. In addition to the name of the person or entity that holds the rights for the app you also have to add in square brackets that it is a mobile application. Mobile applicationAPA-format RightsholderName, (Year). TitleSoftwareProgram (Versionnumber) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Tinder Inc. (2015). Tinder (Version 4.5.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/nl/app/tinder/id547702041?mt=8In the textAccording to the mobile application software 'Tinder' … (Tinder Inc., 2015). Tinder Inc. (2015) suggested in the mobile application software 'Tinder' that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Blendle-article/ Newspaper article (internet)In addition to printed articles there are a lot of articles, which are published online (for example via Blendle or the newspaper website). According to the APA Style an online newspaper article is cited in the same way as a normal internet source. You can find an example below.Blendle-article/ Newspaper article (internet)APA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month day). TitleArticle. NameNewspaper. (PagenumberIfAvialable). Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn referencelist Gale, A. (2015, August 7). Perils of Family Roil Asian Group. The Wall Street Journal. p. 1. Retrieved from https://blendle.com/i/the-wall-street-journal/perils-of-family-roil-asian-group/bnl-wallstreetjournal-20150807-1_3In the textThe news article 'Perils of Family Roil Asian Group' suggests that … (Gale, 2015). Gale (2015) suggests that the problem could be solved by … .Open example in the APA Generator
BookWhen referring to a book in your thesis, you have to do so, according to the APA Style, in the following way:BookAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). TitleBook (edition). City, State/Country: Publisher.In referencelist Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (1th  ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.In the textResearch suggests that … (Porter, 1998). In a study Porter (1998) found that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Commercial Radio/TVThe reference of a commercial from radio/TV according to the APA Style is different from the one for a Radio/TV-show. Commercial Radio/TVAPA-format LastNameWriter, FirstInitial (writer). And/or LastNameDirector, FirstInitial (director). And/or NameCompany. (DateCommercialAired). TitleCommercial [Television or radio commercial]. City, State/Country: Television Network or Radio Station. Optional: Retrieved From http://WebAdressIn reference list Scott, J. (director). (2014). Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial [Television Commercial]. St. Louis, MO: Fox. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQB7QRyF4p4In the textAccording to the Television commercial  'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' … (Scott, 2014). Scott (2006) suggested in the TV commercial 'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' that … .
Conference paperProceedings are contributions to scientific conferences, congresses, symposiums or meetings. They often are published bundled and are formally published in a book or in periodicals. This represents a report about what has been discussed during a particular conference. The APA Style has specific rules for the notation of proceedings or conference papers. Chapter of proceedings in a bookAPA-format AuthorLastname, FirstInitial. (Year). TitleConferencePaper. In Editor1Initial. Editor1LastName & Editor2Initial. Editor2Lastname. (Ed.), TitleProceedings (pp. Firstpage-Lastpage). City, State/Country: NamePublisher. (instead of the publisher you can also use the URL or doi)In reference list Katz, I., Gabayan, K. & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu & P. Scheunders (Red.), Lecture notes in Computer Science: Vol 4678. Advanced concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97-108). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74607-2_9In the textResearch suggests that ... (Katz, Gabayan & Aghajan, 2007). Katz, Gabayan and Aghajan (2007) found that ... .Open example in the APA Generator  Paper from online proceedingAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). TitleConferencePaper. TitleProceedings, volume, Firstpage-LastPage. doi:DoiNumber (instead of using the doi, you can also use the URl: "Retrieved from http://Website")In reference list Tattersall, I. (2009). Human origins: Out of Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 16018-16021. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903207106In the textThe paper from the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America suggests that ... (Tattersall, 2009). In his research Tattersall (2009) found that ... .
DictionaryTo define a word in your thesis you can use a dictionary. The APA Style has two different notations for the reference of a dictionary. For the right reference you have to distinguish between an online and a printed dictionary. Printed dictionaryAPA-format Searchterm. (year). In TitleDictionary (edition). CityPublisher, Country/State: PublisherIn reference list Chardonnay. (2005). In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11e ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.In the textChardonnay can be defined as: "..." (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005). According to the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005) Chardonnay can be defined as: "...". Online dictionaryAPA-format Searchterm. (year). In TitleDictionary (edition). Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Chardonnay. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11 ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/thesisIn the textChardonnay can be defined as: "..." (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005). According to the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005) Chardonnay can be defined as: "...".
E-bookFor the reference of an e-book the APA Style has a specific notation. Next to author, date and title you also have to add the type of source in square brackets. E-bookAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). TitleBook (edition). [E-booktype], City, State/Country: Publisher.In reference list Garcia, O. (2015). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective (1th  ed.). [EPub], Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.In the textResearch suggests that … (Garcia, 2015). In a study Garcia (2015) found that … .
FacebookWhen referring to Facebook you always have to take the privacy policy of a social media into account. According to the APA Style you can handle Facebook as a normal internet source and add the type of source in squared brackets. FacebookAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day). TitleFacebookUpdate [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Zuckerberg, m. (2015, July 1). As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satiellites to connect [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102217102231151In the textAccording to the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' … (Zuckerberg, 2015). Zuckerberg (2015) suggested in the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Forum postWhen using a message or post from a forum or online discussion group, you have to take the following APA Style into account. Forum-postAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. [Alias]. (Year, Month Day). TitleDiscussionThread [Type Message/Reaction]. Message posted to http://WebAdressIn reference list Chan, R. (2012, December 16). WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap [Online Forum Post]. Message posted to https://www.linkedin.com/grp/post/114512-196724588?trk=groups-post-b-titleIn the textAccording to the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' … (Chan, 2012). Chan (2012) suggested in the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Internal documents (Intranet)When using sources from an (internship-) company like internal memos, internal company data, guidelines, transcripts or other sources from the intranet, the APA Style has specific rules.It is possible that some readers of your thesis have access to the internal data but others don’t. When you’re doing an internship for a company, your boss will have access to the data but your professor at the University won’t. Not every reader has access to the source You can handle the source as a normal internet source. This means, you can record the short version in your text and the complete version in your reference list. Next to that you add a footnote, which explains to the readers that the source is from the intranet and may not be accessible to everyone.  Internal documents (and the reader has access to these documents)APA-format NameOrganisation. (Year, Month day). NameDocument [TypeDocument]. Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Apple. (2016, September 18). Guidelines employees [Guidelines]. Retrieved from intranet.apple.com/newsupdate/guideline.pdfIn the textInternal documents show that … (Apple, 2014)1. Internal documents from Apple (2014)1 show that … .Open example in the APA GeneratorExample - Footnote with an intranet sourceNo link available If there is no link available for the source, we advise you to make use of the APA rules for ‘personal communication’. This means you don’t have to record the source in your reference list. Important internal document If the document plays an important role in your thesis, you could also add it to the appendix (ask the company first, if that's okay). Instead of recording the source according to the APA Style, you only refer to the appendix.
Internet articleThe APA has specific rules about how to cite an internet article. Remember to record the whole URL (www.scribbr.nl/easy/article) instead of just using the cover page (www.scribbr.nl).If you’re not referring to an article but you’re referring to a photo, video etc., you need to place the type of source in square brackets after the title.  Internet articleAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day). TitleArticle [Type]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn referencelist Worland, J. (2015, July 27). U.S. flood risk could be worse than we thought. Retrieved from http://time.com/3973256/flooding-risk-coastal-cities/In the textAn article on Time suggests that … (Worland, 2015). In a news article Worland (2015) suggests that … .Open example in the APA Generator
InterviewWhen referring to an interview, according to the APA Style, you have to take into account the following question: Is the interview part of the appendix? If so, you can just refer to the appendix. The APA Style does not apply here. If the interview cannot be found in the appendix, you can use the APA Style for ‘personal communication’.The two options:The interview is part of the appendix. The interview is not part of the appendix.The interview is part of the appendix When referring to an interview, you refer to the appendix in which the interview can be found. Example: Referring to an interview in the appendixAccording to person X (Appendix 1) is … .An interview with person x shows that … (Appendix 1).The interview is not part of the appendix By using ‘personal communication’ you clarify that your documents (interviews) are not available to a third party. That also applies if you didn't make a transcript of the interview. You still need to add ‘personal communication’. Personal communicationAPA-format Don't record in the referencelistIn referencelist Don't record in the referencelistIn the textIn a conversation with the floor manager … (P. Bankers, personal communication, March 3, 2015). P. Bankers (personal communication, March 3, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .
JournalScientific research is published in scientific journals. When writing an (academic) thesis, you will mainly use these articles. Remember to check if the quality of the journal you’re using is good enough for your thesis.When you cite or paraphrase an article from a journal you always have to record your source. Below you can find an example of what the reference, according to the APA Style, should look like. JournalAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial., & Author LastName, FirstInitial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page Number(s). doi:numberIn referencelist Andreff, W., & Staudohar, P. D. (2000). The evolving European model of professional sports finance. Journal of Sports Economics, 1(3), 257-276. doi:10.1177/152700250000100304 In the textRecent research suggests that ... (Andreff & Staudohar, 2000). In a recent study Andreff and Staudohar (2000) found that ... .Open example in the APA Generator
Lecture slides/ handoutsThe APA reference for PowerPoint-slides and handouts depends on the accessibility. Are the slides accessible for the reader? Slides are only available via: Blackboard, N@tschool, Moodle, Magister etc. When the slides are part of a digital study database, you can handle them almost the same as a intranet source. In this case you just add a footnote in which you make clear that the source is only accessible via the digital study database. Lecture slides (not publicly accessible)APA-format AuthorLastname, FirstInitials. (Year, month day). Title of the document [Type document]. Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Ribbers, P. (2015, August 4). Introduction in ethics [Slides]. Retrieved from http://public-sheets.uvt.com/ethics/week1/class1In the textResearch suggests … (Ribbers, 2015)1. Ribbers (2015)1 found that… .In the footnote 1 Source derived from Blackboard Uvt (not publicly available).Slides publicly accessible Is the source publicly accessible, then the reference according to the APA Style is the same as for a normal internet source. Lecture slides (publicly accessible)APA-format AuthorLastname, FirstInitials. (Year, month day). Title of the document [Type document]. Retrieved from http://WebsiteIn reference list Ribbers, P. (2015, August 4). Introduction in ethics [Slides]. Retrieved from http://public-sheets.uvt.com/ethics/week1/class1In the textResearch suggests … (Ribbers, 2015). Ribbers (2015) found that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Movie/DocumentaryIt is possible to use information from a movie/ documentary in your thesis. If that’s the case then the source has to be recorded in the reference list. The APA Style for a movie/documentary is different from the one for a YouTube video.Movie/ DocumentaryAPA-format ProducerLastName, FirstInitial. (Producer), & DirectorLastName, FirstInitial. (Director). (Year). TitleMotionPicture [Motion Picture]. CountryOfOrigin: NameStudio.In reference list Healy, J. (Producer), Balda, K. (Director), & Coffin, P. (Director). (2015).  Minions [Motion Picture]. Santa Monica, CA: Illumination Entertainment.In the textAccording to the motion picture 'Minions' … (Healy, Balda & Coffin, 2015). Healy, Balda & Coffin (2015) suggested in the motion picture 'Minions' that … .
Newspaper article (offline)Newspaper articles can be published online as well as offline (printed). The APA Style reference for an online article is the same as the one for a normal internet source. To refer to a printed article the APA Style has specific rules.Newspaper article (offline)APA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (YearOfPublication, Month Day). TitleArticle. NameNewspaper, p. pagenumber.In referencelist Wilford, J. N. (1969, July 21). Men walk on moon. Astronauts land on plain; collect rocks, plant flag. The New York Times, p. A1.In the textAccording to  news article 'Men walk on moon' … (Wilford, 1969). Wilford (2015) suggested in the news article 'Men walk on moon' that … .Open example in the APA Generator
OrationThe oration is a speech given by the professor, when he or she takes office.When you want to refer to an oration according to the APA Style , you first have to find out if the oration is published or not.The oration is published It is common that a professor publishes his oration. That happens mostly via a pdf-document, which you can download from the internet.In that case you use the same notation as for a book. In square brackets you add [oration] to the reference. OrationAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). TitleBook [Oration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Hagoort, G. (2007). Cultureel ondernemerschap [Oration]. Retrieved from http://binoq.nl/lib/Documenten/ cultureel%20ondernemerschap/Oratie_Hagoort.pdfIn the textResearch suggests that … (Hagoort, 2007). In the oration Hagoort (2007) found that … .Open example in the APA GeneratorThe oration is not published When the oration is not published, the speech is not accessible for a third party. In that case you can use the APA Style for “personal communication”. Personal communicationAPA-format Don't record in the reference listIn reference list Don't record in the reference listIn the textFrom the oration it was obvious that … (E. Smet, personal communication, September 22, 2015). E. Smet (personal communication, September 22, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .
PatentThe reference of a patent is different from the normal APA Style The APA reference for a patent consists of four parts: the name of the inventor, the year in which the patent is requested, the unique patent identification number and the name of the patent office.PatentAPA-format InventorLastName, FirstInitial. (YearOfPatentIssue). PatentIdentifier No.. State, city: PatentOfficeNameIn reference list Fry, A. L. (1993). U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.In the textAccording to a patent on adhesive sheet material ... (U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299, 1993). A technique in Patent U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299 (1994) shows that ... .
PDF-documentIt is possible to use PDF-documents as a source in your thesis. For the right APA reference you first have to determine which kind of source it is. PDF- documents can be books, reports, articles etc.For the right reference according to the APA Style you can find more information on the following sites:Book Journal Report
Personal communicationConversations belong, according to the APA Style, to ‘personal communication’. Examples are: e-mails, letters, phone calls, personal conversations, interviews, questionnaires etc. A source that counts as personal communication is not recorded in the reference list, because the reader can't check it.That means you will refer to the personal communication in your text but won’t record it in the reference list. You can make a list with all names and data of your interviews in the appendix.Personal communicationAPA-format Don't record in reference listIn reference list Don't record in reference listIn the textIn a conversation with the floor manager … (P. Bankers, personal communication, March 3, 2015). P. Bankers (personal communication, March 3, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .
Photo/ ImageWhen referring to a photo or image according to the APA Style, the source in the reference list will be recorded in the same way as the one for a normal internet source. Behind the title of the source you have to add that the source is a photo/image in square brackets.If the name of the photographer/ artist is unknown, you look to see if the photo is published on a website from an organization. If so, you can assume that the organization is the creator. If not, you can use the title of the photo/image for the name of the creator. If the title is unknown, you give a short description in squared brackets.See the following examples if you miss data:Author is unknown. The title is missing.Photo, imageAPA-format PhotographerName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day). TitlePhoto [Photograph/Illustration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn referencelist Stanmeyer, J. (2014, February 26). World Press Photo 2014 [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.worldpressphoto.org/collection/photo/2014/contemporary-issues/john-stanmeyerIn the textThe picture above (Stanmeyer, 2014) shows playful exposure of ... .Open example in the APA Generator
Press releaseAccording to the APA Style you can handle the reference of a press release in the same way as a normal internet source. After the title you should add ‘press release’ in square brackets. Press release (online)APA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. Or NameOrganization. (Year, Month day). TitlePressRelease [Press release]. Retrieved from: http://WebAddressIn reference list The President’s Office. (2015, August 5). Vice President arrives in Egypt on official trip [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/Index.aspx?lid=11&dcid=15744In the textIn 2015 President Ahmed Adeeb Abdul Ghafoor visited Egypt for x and y (The President’s Office, 2015). The President’s Office (2015) published a press release to ... .Open example in the APA Generator
Radio/Tv-showWhen using information from a radio or TV show, you always have to add the producer of the show to your reference. The producer can normally be found on the website of the show. The APA Style for a radio/TV-show is different from the one for a commercial.Example radio-show in APA Style RadioAPA-format LastName, FirstInitial. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer.In reference list Dane, F. (DJ). (2015, July 31). Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo [Radio Broadcast]. In P. Franssen (producer). Frank and Friday Show. Hilversum, The Netherlands: Radio 538.In the textAccording to the radio broadcast  'Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo' … (Dane, 2015). Dane (2015) suggested in the radio show 'Frank and Friday Show' that … .Example TV-show in APA Style  TV showAPA-format LastName, FirstInitial. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer.In reference list Attenborough, D. (narrator). (2006, November 19). Jungles [TV-show]. In A. Fothergill (executive producer). Planet Earth. London, United Kingdom: BBCIn the textAccording to the documentary  … (Attenborough, 2006). Attenborough (2006) suggested in the documentary 'Jungles' that … .
ReportScientific research is published in scientific journals. If research is conducted by an organization or the government then it will be published in a report. For that the APA Style has a specific notation. ReportAPA-format NameOrganization or AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (YearofPublication). Title Rapport. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn referencelist Royal Bank of Scotland. (2015). Annual Report and Accounts 2014. Retrieved from http://investors.rbs.com/~/media/Files/R/RBS-IR/2014-reports/annual-report-2014.pdf In the textRecent research suggests that ... (Royal Bank of Scotland, 2015). In a recent study Royal Bank of Scotland (2015) found that ... .Open example in the APA Generator
SoftwareAccording to the APA Style you don’t have to record ‘’standard software’’ like Microsoft Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS, in your reference list.If you use special software, you have to record it. In that case remember to record the reference using the correct APA Style.When an individual person holds the rights for the software, the name of that individual is recorded as the author. Otherwise the software has to be handled as an unwritten document. In that case you can use the title of the software for the author’s name. If the software is online accessible, use the URL instead of the name of the publisher and the location.Software with author  Software with authorAPA-format RightsholderName. (Year). TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list JetBrains s.r.o. (2015). JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3) [Software]. Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/In the textAccording to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (JetBrains s.r.o., 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the Software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' that … .Open example in the APA GeneratorSoftware without author  Software without authorAPA-format TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. (Year). Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Super software (8.0.3) [Software] (2015). Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/In the textAccording to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (Super software, 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the software 'Super software (8.0.3)' that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Statistic databaseWhen using specific data for your thesis, it is important to know how a dataset (e.g. from Datastream) has to be recorded according to the APA Style. In that case you use the notation for a normal internet source and write ‘dataset’ after the title in square brackets.Statistic databaseAPA-format NameDatabase. (YearOfPublication, Month Day). TitleDatabase [Data set]. Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Central Bureau for Statistics. (2015, July 28). Statistics Netherlands: Dutch exports to Russia almost reduced by half [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/the­mas/internationale-handel/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2015/nederlandse-export-naar-rusland-bijna-gehalveerd.htmIn the textData on export to Russia suggests that … (Central Bureau for Statistics, 2015). Data on export to Russia from Central Bureau for Statistics (2015) suggests that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Thesis of another studentYou can use other theses as a source for your own thesis. Take into account that theses often still contain mistakes and are not always a reliable source. So don’t base your thesis too much on other theses. According to the APA Style you also have to add to your reference that it is a thesis of another student.  Thesis of another studentAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). TitleThesisOrDissertation (Dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://WebAddressIn reference list Huijg, N. (2015). The determinants of the Dutch demand for military spending (master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/30207In the textAccording to earlier research in a master's thesis ... (Huijg, 2015). Huijg (2015) states in his master's thesis that ... .Open example in the APA Generator
TwitterWhen using information from Twitter, make sure you use the right APA reference. You should also take the privacy policy of Twitter-posts into account. TwitterAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. [Twitterhandle]. (Year, Month Day). ContentTweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Gates, B. (2015, July 23). For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102217102231151In the textAccording to the Tweet 'For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6' … (Gates, 2015). Gates (2015) suggested in the Tweet 'For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6' that …Open example in APA Generator
WikipediaWikipedia can be a useful and fast tool to gain knowledge about a topic. However, it is not desirable to use Wikipedia as a source for your thesis. If you want to refer to Wikipedia anyway, according to the APA Style you need to use the same notation as for a normal internet source .Because Wikipedia articles can change from time to time, it’s important that you record the date on which you retrieved the Wikipedia page.Wikipedia articleAPA-format WikipediaEntry. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved Month day, Year, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/entryIn reference list Thesis. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 6, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThesisIn the textAccording to Wikipedia the definition of 'thesis' is different in every country (Wikipedia, n.d.). According to Wikipedia (n.d.) the definition of 'thesis' is different in every country.Open example in the APA Generator
YouTubeInformation from YouTube- and Vimeo-videos can be useful for your thesis. Remember to record these sources in the right APA Style.If the real name of the user is unknown, you can use the username instead, without square brackets. If both names are known, real name and username, you can add the username in square brackets. YouTube/VimeoAPA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. [ScreenName]. (Year, Month Day). TitleVideo [YouTube]. Retrieved from http://WebAdressIn reference list Neistat, C. [CaseyNeistat]. (2015, October 17). NEW CAR! [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XqsJYk1-yMIn the textAccording to the YouTube clip 'NEW CAR!' … (Neistat, 2015). Neistat (2015) suggested in the YouTube clip 'NEW CAR!' that … .Open example in the APA Generator
Scientific (journal) article for publicationIf you use a scientific article (journal) that has not yet been officially published, the way you cite it in your thesis will depend on the article’s specific state of preparation. The APA Style has special rules on this issue.Articles go through four stages of preparation on their way to publication:In preparation Submitted for publication In press Pre-published onlinePre-print and post-print articles The American Psychological Association, which is the organization behind the APA Style, divides the above stages into pre-print and post-print. Articles in categories 1 and 2 are considered pre-print, while those in 3 and 4 are defined as post-print.The biggest difference is that pre-print articles have not undergone peer review. Since post-print articles are closer to publication, it is also more likely that more detailed information will be available for them (such as the volume and issue in which the article will appear).The page numbers and formatting will generally not be available until an article has passed through all four stages of preparation and the journal has actually been published.The tables below provide examples of how to cite articles in each of these four stages. Pay particular attention to the specific wording that must be included in some cases and how other details change from stage to stage. Article in preparation (pre-print) At this stage, an article is in preparation and has not yet been accepted by a journal.Note that the year reflects when the article was written.  Article in preparationAPA format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). Title of article. Article/Manuscript in preparation.In the reference list Linden, S.C., Jackson, M.C., Subramanian, L., Wolf, C. & Linden, D.E. (2008). Emotion- cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression. Article in preparation.In the textAccording to the article “Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression,”… (Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, & Linden, 2008). Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, and Linden (2008) suggested in the article “Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression” that…Article submitted for publication (pre-print) An article at this stage is being reviewed by a journal - but it has not yet been accepted for publication.Note that the year continues to indicate when the article was written and that a journal name is still not included, as it’s not known if or when the article will be published.  Article submitted for publicationAPA format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). Title of article. Article/Manuscript submitted for publication.In the reference list Linden, S.C., Jackson, M.C., Subramanian, L., Wolf, C. & Linden, D.E. (2008). Emotion- cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression. Article submitted for publication.In the textAccording to the article “Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression,” … (Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, & Linden, 2008). Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, and Linden (2008) suggested in the article “Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression” that…Article in press (post-print) At this stage, an article has been accepted by a journal and is in process of being published. In many cases, the article will be accessible only through the author’s personal website or the website of his/her institution.Note that the year the article was written should now be replaced with “in press.” The journal’s name can also be included at this point.  Article in pressAPA format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (in press). Title of article. Title of Journal.In the reference list Linden, S.C., Jackson, M.C., Subramanian, L., Wolf, C. & Linden, D.E. (in press). Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression. Neuropsychologia.In de textAccording to the article “Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression,”… (Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, & Linden, 2009). Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, and Linden (2008) suggested in the article “Emotion- cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression” that…Article published online (post-print) When an article is at an advanced level of preparation, some journals will make it available though online databases. At this stage, the publisher may have already issued a digital object identifier (DOI). If it has, include this information in your reference list entry.Note that “in press” is now also replaced with the actual year of publication.  Article published onlineAPA format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. DOI/URLIn the reference list Linden, S.C., Jackson, M.C., Subramanian, L., Wolf, C. & Linden, D.E. (2009). Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression. Neuropsychologia. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.11.023In the textAccording to the article “Emotion-cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression,”… (Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, & Linden, 2009). Linden, Jackson, Subramanian, Wolf, and Linden (2009) suggested in the article “Emotion- cognition interactions in schizophrenia: Implicit and explicit effects of facial expression” that…
SurveyIf you’re referring to your own survey (and its results), you don’t normally need to use a formal APA Style citation. What you do instead depends on which of the following is true:Your survey/results are in an appendix to your thesis Your survey/results are not in an appendix to your thesisThe survey/results are in an appendix In this case, just refer to the appendix that contains the survey. Example: Referencing a survey in the appendixThe survey asked respondents... (Appendix 1).Overall, the survey showed that men more often... (Appendix 1).The survey/results are not in an appendix Since you can’t refer to an appendix, you should instead refer to a “personal communication”. Using this term indicates that the survey/results are not available to third parties – including the reader. Personal communicationAPA Format Not included in the literature list.In the literature list Not included in the literature list.In the textThe survey showed that... (B. Swaen, personal communication, November 3, 2016).We recommend that you always include your survey and its results in an appendix. If that isn’t possible for some reason, you can avoid having to use “personal communication” by going for the Intranet solution.

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