APA citation examples

Referencing according to the APA Style can be a difficult task. We have prepared some resources to help you:

Examples APA Style references

Source typeOriginal content
AppsThe APA Style has specific rules for the reference of information from an app or mobile application software. In addition to the name of the person or entity that holds the rights for the app you also have to add in square brackets that it is a mobile application.  Mobile application APA-format RightsholderName, (Year). TitleSoftwareProgram (Versionnumber) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Tinder Inc. (2015). Tinder (Version 4.5.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/nl/app/tinder/id547702041?mt=8 In the text According to the mobile application software 'Tinder' … (Tinder Inc., 2015). Tinder Inc. (2015) suggested in the mobile application software 'Tinder' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Commercial Radio/TVThe reference of a commercial from radio/TV according to the APA Style is different from the one for a Radio/TV-show.  Commercial Radio/TV APA-format LastNameWriter, Initials (writer). And/or LastNameDirector, Initials (director). And/or NameCompany. (DateCommercialAired). TitleCommercial [Television or radio commercial]. City, State/Country: Television Network or Radio Station. Optional: Retrieved From http://WebAddress In reference list Scott, J. T. (director). (2014). Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial [Television Commercial]. St. Louis, MO: Fox. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQB7QRyF4p4 In the text According to the Television commercial  'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' … (Scott, 2014). Scott (2006) suggested in the TV commercial 'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' that … .
Conference paperProceedings are contributions to scientific conferences, congresses, symposiums or meetings. They often are published bundled and are formally published in a book or in periodicals. This represents a report about what has been discussed during a particular conference. The APA Style has specific rules for the notation of proceedings or conference papers.  Chapter of proceedings in a book APA-format AuthorLastname, Initials. (Year). TitleConferencePaper. In Editor1Initial. Editor1LastName & Editor2Initial. Editor2Lastname. (Ed.), TitleProceedings (pp. Firstpage-Lastpage). City, State/Country: NamePublisher. (instead of the publisher you can also use the URL or DOI) In reference list Katz, I., Gabayan, K. & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu & P. Scheunders (Red.), Lecture notes in Computer Science: Vol 4678. Advanced concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97-108). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74607-2_9 In the text Research suggests that ... (Katz, Gabayan & Aghajan, 2007). Katz, Gabayan and Aghajan (2007) found that ... . Open example in the APA Citation Generator   Paper from online proceeding APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleConferencePaper. TitleProceedings, volume, Firstpage-LastPage. https://doi.org/DoiNumber (instead of using the DOI, you can also use the URl: "Retrieved from http://Website") In reference list Tattersall, I. (2009). Human origins: Out of Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 16018-16021. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903207106 In the text The paper from the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America suggests that ... (Tattersall, 2009). In his research Tattersall (2009) found that ... .
Dissertation of another studentYou can use other theses as a source for your own dissertation. Take into account that theses often still contain mistakes and are not always a reliable source. So don’t base your dissertation too much on other theses. According to the APA Style you also have to add to your reference that it is a dissertation of another student.   Dissertation of another student APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleThesisOrDissertation (Thesis or Master’s dissertation). Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Huijg, N. T. (2015). The Determinants of the Dutch Demand for Military Spending (Master’s dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/30207 In the text According to earlier research in a master's dissertation ... (Huijg, 2015). Huijg (2015) states in his master's dissertation that ... . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
FacebookWhen referring to Facebook you always have to take the privacy policy of a social media into account. According to the APA Style you can handle Facebook as a normal internet source and add the type of source in squared brackets.  Facebook APA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day). TitleFacebookUpdate [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Zuckerberg, m. (2015, July 1). As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satiellites to connect [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102217102231151 In the text According to the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' … (Zuckerberg, 2015). Zuckerberg (2015) suggested in the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Forum postWhen using a message or post from a forum or online discussion group, you have to take the following APA Style into account.  Forum-post APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. [Alias]. (Year, Month Day). TitleDiscussionThread [Type Message/Reaction]. Message posted to http://WebAdress In reference list Chan, R. (2012, December 16). WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap [Online Forum Post]. Message posted to https://www.linkedin.com/grp/post/114512-196724588?trk=groups-post-b-title In the text According to the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' … (Chan, 2012). Chan (2012) suggested in the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Internal documents (Intranet)When using sources from an (internship-) company like internal memos, internal company data, guidelines, transcripts or other sources from the intranet, the APA Style has specific rules. It is possible that some readers of your dissertation have access to the internal data but others don’t. When you’re doing an internship for a company, your boss will have access to the data but your professor at the University won’t. Not every reader has access to the source You can handle the source as a normal internet source. This means, you can record the short version in your text and the complete version in your reference list. Next to that you add a footnote, which explains to the readers that the source is from the intranet and may not be accessible to everyone.  Internal documents (and the reader has access to these documents) APA-format NameOrganisation. (Year, Month day). NameDocument [TypeDocument]. Retrieved from http://Website In reference list Apple. (2016, September 18). Guidelines employees [Guidelines]. Retrieved from intranet.apple.com/newsupdate/guideline.pdf In the text Internal documents show that … (Apple, 2014)1. Internal documents from Apple (2014)1 show that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator Example - Footnote with an intranet source No link available If there is no link available for the source, we advise you to make use of the APA rules for ‘personal communication’. This means you don’t have to record the source in your reference list. Important internal document If the document plays an important role in your dissertation, you could also add it to the appendix (ask the company first, if that's okay). Instead of recording the source according to the APA Style, you only refer to the appendix.
Lecture slides/ handoutsThe APA reference for PowerPoint-slides and handouts depends on the accessibility. Are the slides accessible for the reader? Slides are only available via: Blackboard, N@tschool, Moodle, Magister etc. When the slides are part of a digital study database, you can handle them almost the same as a intranet source. In this case you just add a footnote in which you make clear that the source is only accessible via the digital study database. Lecture slides (not publicly accessible) APA-format AuthorLastname, Initials. (Year, month day). Title of the document [Type document]. Retrieved from http://Website In reference list Ribbers, P. G. (2015, August 4). Introduction in ethics [Slides]. Retrieved from http://public-sheets.uvt.com/ethics/week1/class1 In the text Research suggests … (Ribbers, 2015)1. Ribbers (2015)1 found that… . In the footnote 1 Source derived from Blackboard Uvt (not publicly available). Slides publicly accessible Is the source publicly accessible, then the reference according to the APA Style is the same as for a normal internet source. Lecture slides (publicly accessible) APA-format AuthorLastname, Initials. (Year, month day). Title of the document [Type document]. Retrieved from http://Website In reference list Ribbers, P. (2015, August 4). Introduction in ethics [Slides]. Retrieved from http://public-sheets.uvt.com/ethics/week1/class1 In the text Research suggests … (Ribbers, 2015). Ribbers (2015) found that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
OrationThe oration is a speech given by the professor, when he or she takes office. When you want to refer to an oration according to the APA Style , you first have to find out if the oration is published or not. The oration is published It is common that a professor publishes his oration. That happens mostly via a pdf-document, which you can download from the internet. In that case you use the same notation as for a book. In square brackets you add [oration] to the reference. Oration APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleBook [Oration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Hagoort, G. (2007). Cultureel ondernemerschap [Oration]. Retrieved from http://binoq.nl/lib/Documenten/ cultureel%20ondernemerschap/Oratie_Hagoort.pdf In the text Research suggests that … (Hagoort, 2007). In the oration Hagoort (2007) found that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator The oration is not published When the oration is not published, the speech is not accessible for a third party. In that case you can use the APA Style for “personal communication”. Personal communication APA-format Don't record in the reference list In reference list Don't record in the reference list In the text From the oration it was obvious that … (E. Smet, personal communication, September 22, 2015). E. Smet (personal communication, September 22, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .
PatentThe reference of a patent is different from the normal APA Style. The APA reference for a patent consists of four parts: the name of the inventor, the year in which the patent was issued, the unique patent identification number, and the name of the patent office. Patent APA-format Inventor Last Name, Initials. (Year Of Patent Issue). Patent Identifier No.. State, city: Patent Office Name In reference list Fry, A. L. (1993). U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. In the text According to a patent on adhesive sheet material ... (U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299, 1993). A technique in Patent U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299 (1994) shows that ... .
PDF documentIt is possible to use PDF documents as a source in your thesis. For the right APA reference you first have to determine which kind of source it is. PDF documents can be books, reports, articles etc. For the right reference according to the APA Style you can find more information on the following sites: Book Journal Report
Press releaseAccording to the APA Style you can handle the reference of a press release in the same way as a normal internet source. After the title you should add ‘press release’ in square brackets. Press release (online) APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. Or NameOrganization. (Year, Month day). TitlePressRelease [Press release]. Retrieved from: http://WebAddress In reference list The President’s Office. (2015, August 5). Vice President arrives in Egypt on official trip [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/Index.aspx?lid=11&dcid=15744 In the text In 2015 President Ahmed Adeeb Abdul Ghafoor visited Egypt for x and y (The President’s Office, 2015). The President’s Office (2015) published a press release to ... . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Radio/Tv-showWhen using information from a radio or TV show, you always have to add the producer of the show to your reference. The producer can normally be found on the website of the show. The APA Style for a radio/TV-show is different from the one for a commercial. Example radio-show in APA Style Radio APA-format LastName, Initials. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer. In reference list Dane, F. T. (DJ). (2015, July 31). Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo [Radio Broadcast]. In P. Franssen (producer). Frank and Friday Show. Hilversum, The Netherlands: Radio 538. In the text According to the radio broadcast  'Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo' … (Dane, 2015). Dane (2015) suggested in the radio show 'Frank and Friday Show' that … . Example TV-show in APA Style  TV show APA-format LastName, Initials. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer. In reference list Attenborough, D. F. (narrator). (2006, November 19). Jungles [TV-show]. In A. Fothergill (executive producer). Planet Earth. London, United Kingdom: BBC In the text According to the documentary  … (Attenborough, 2006). Attenborough (2006) suggested in the documentary 'Jungles' that … .
ReportScientific research is published in scientific journals. If research is conducted by an organization or the government, then it will be published in a report. APA Style has a specific format for citing a report.  Report APA-format Organization Name or Author Last Name, Initials. (YearofPublication). Report Title (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Royal Bank of Scotland. (2015). Annual Report and Accounts 2014. Retrieved from http://investors.rbs.com/~/media/Files/R/RBS-IR/2014-reports/annual-report-2014.pdf  In the text Recent research suggests that ... (Royal Bank of Scotland, 2015). In a recent study Royal Bank of Scotland (2015) found that ... . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
SoftwareAccording to the APA Style you don’t have to record ‘’standard software’’ like Microsoft Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS, in your reference list. If you use special software, you have to record it. In that case remember to record the reference using the correct APA Style. When an individual person holds the rights for the software, the name of that individual is recorded as the author. Otherwise the software has to be handled as an unwritten document. In that case you can use the title of the software for the author’s name. If the software is online accessible, use the URL instead of the name of the publisher and the location. Software with author  Software with author APA-format RightsholderName. (Year). TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list JetBrains s.r.o. (2015). JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3) [Software]. Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/ In the text According to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (JetBrains s.r.o., 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the Software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator Software without author  Software without author APA-format TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. (Year). Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Super software (8.0.3) [Software] (2015). Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/ In the text According to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (Super software, 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the software 'Super software (8.0.3)' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Statistic databaseWhen using specific data for your dissertation, it is important to know how a dataset (e.g. from Datastream) has to be recorded according to the APA Style. In that case you use the notation for a normal internet source and write ‘dataset’ after the title in square brackets. Statistic database APA-format NameDatabase. (YearOfPublication, Month Day). TitleDatabase [Data set]. Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Central Bureau for Statistics. (2015, July 28). Statistics Netherlands: Dutch exports to Russia almost reduced by half [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/the­mas/internationale-handel/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2015/nederlandse-export-naar-rusland-bijna-gehalveerd.htm In the text Data on export to Russia suggests that … (Central Bureau for Statistics, 2015). Data on export to Russia from Central Bureau for Statistics (2015) suggests that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
TwitterWhen using information from Twitter, make sure you use the right APA reference. You should also take the privacy policy of Twitter-posts into account.  Twitter APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. [Twitterhandle]. (Year, Month Day). ContentTweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Gates, B. (2015, July 23). For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/billgates/status/623982190750269443 In the text According to the Tweet 'For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6' … (Gates, 2015). Gates (2015) suggested in the Tweet 'For poor countries, development isn't just about foreign aid. Investment and taxes matter just as much, if not more: b-gat.es/1lfVdn6' that … Open example in APA Citation Generator
SurveyIf you’re referring to your own survey research (and its results), you don’t normally need to use a formal APA Style citation. What you do instead depends on which of the following is true: Your survey/results are in an appendix to your dissertation Your survey/results are not in an appendix to your dissertation The survey/results are in an appendix In this case, just refer to the appendix that contains the survey. Example: Referencing a survey in the appendix The survey asked respondents... (Appendix 1). Overall, the survey showed that men more often... (Appendix 1). The survey/results are not in an appendix Since you can’t refer to an appendix, you should instead refer to a “personal communication”. Using this term indicates that the survey/results are not available to third parties – including the reader. Personal communication APA Format Not included in the literature list. In the literature list Not included in the literature list. In the text The survey showed that... (B. Swaen, personal communication, November 3, 2016). We recommend that you always include your survey and its results in an appendix. If that isn’t possible for some reason, you can avoid having to use “personal communication” by going for the Intranet solution.
How to cite a book in APAA book citation in APA Style always includes the author’s name, the publication year, the book title, and the publisher. Use the interactive tool to see examples: Interactive APA book citation example Note that the format is slightly different for reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias. You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to generate your APA book citations. Just paste the ISBN or DOI and the generator retrieves all the necessary information. [citation-widget style="apa" type="book"] Basic book citation format The APA in-text citation for a book includes the author's last name, the year, and (if relevant) a page number. In the reference list, start with the author's last name and initials, followed by the year. The book title is written in sentence case (only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns). Include other contributors (e.g. editors and translators) and the edition if specified. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. (Contributor initials, last name, role.) (Edition). City, State/Country: Publisher. Example Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London, UK: Verso. In-text citation (Anderson, 1983, p. 23) 7th edition changes In the 7th edition of the APA manual, the publisher location is no longer included. For example: Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. Verso. Ebooks and online books in APA To cite a book you accessed online, replace information about the publisher with information about the book’s format and location online. Books accessed on e-readers A citation of an ebook (i.e. a book accessed on an e-reader) includes the ebook format in square brackets. Add a DOI where available, and otherwise link to the page where the ebook can be purchased or accessed. Since ebooks sometimes do not include page numbers, APA recommends using other methods of identifying a specific passage in your in-text citations – for example, a chapter or section title or a paragraph number. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title [ebook format information]. Retrieved from URL or https://doi.org/xxxxxx Example Burns, A. (2018). Milkman [Kindle version]. Retrieved from https://amzn.to/2ObKrVf In-text citation (Burns, 2018, para. 15) Books accessed online A book accessed through a web browser (for example, in PDF form or on Google Books) follows a slightly different format: Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from URL or https://doi.org/xxxxxxxx Example Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2 In-text citation (Brück, 2009, p. 15) 7th edition changes The 7th edition of the APA manual provides an updated format for ebooks and online books. Ebook format information is no longer included, the name of the publisher is included, and the words “Retrieved from” are no longer necessary before a URL: Burns, A. (2018). Milkman. Faber & Faber. https://amzn.to/2ObKrVf Citing a chapter from an edited book When citing a particular chapter from a book containing texts by various authors (e.g. a collection of essays), begin the citation with the author of the chapter and mention the book’s editor(s) later in the reference. A page range identifies the chapter’s location in the book: Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Last name (Ed. or Eds.), Book title (pp. page range). Publisher. DOI if available Example Belsey, C. (2006). Poststructuralism. In S. Malpas & P. Wake (Eds.), The Routledge companion to critical theory (pp. 51–61). New York, NY: Routledge. In-text citation (Belsey, 2006, p. 55). Multivolume books Citing a single volume When citing from one volume of a multivolume book, the format varies slightly depending on whether each volume has a title or just a number. If the volume has a specific title, this should simply be written as part of the title in your reference list entry: Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot: Vol. 1. Collected and uncollected poems (Ricks, C., & McCue, J., Eds.). London, England: Faber & Faber. If the volume is only numbered, not titled, the volume number is not italicized and appears in parentheses after the title: Dylan, B. (2005). Chronicles (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Citing a multivolume book as a whole If you refer to the book in general, you may wish to cite the whole thing rather than a specific volume. In this case, individual volume titles are not included even if they do exist: Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot (Vols. 1–2) (Ricks, C., & McCue, J., Eds.). London, England: Faber & Faber. Where to find the information for an APA book citation All the information you need to cite a book can usually be found on the title page and the copyright page: The APA reference list entry for the book above would look like this: Butler, C. (2002). Postmodernism: A very short introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a dictionary or encyclopedia in APA StyleTo cite a dictionary definition in APA style, start with the word you’re citing, followed by the publication year, the dictionary name, and the publisher or URL. If there is no publication date, replace it with “n.d.” (“no date”).  APA dictionary citation example Format Entry name. (Year). In Dictionary name (edition). Place: Publisher or Retrieved from URL Reference list Documentation. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/documentation In-text citation (“Documentation,” n.d.) The format for encyclopedia entries is exactly the same, except that they’re more likely to list authors:  APA encyclopedia citation example Reference list Lariviere, S. (n.d.). Hooded seal. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/animal/hooded-seal In-text citation (Lariviere, n.d.) How to cite an online dictionary entry Online dictionaries and encyclopedias tend to be continuously updated, so you usually won’t have a specific publication date. In this case, write “n.d.” (no date) in place of the year: Citation. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/citation If an author is listed, as is the case in many encyclopedias and some specialist dictionaries, include this in the normal author position. When an online reference work lists a specific edition, this information can also be included and its publication date listed: Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism/ Note that the format is slightly different when you want to cite Wikipedia. 7th edition updates In the 7th edition of the APA manual, instead of starting with the title, the name of the dictionary’s publisher is listed as author. The 7th edition also recommends adding a retrieval date for online dictionary citations with no publication date: Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Citation. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved November 28, 2019 from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/citation How to cite a print dictionary Citing from a print dictionary differs in that you’ll always be using a specific edition with a publication date, so this information should appear in your citation: Eyewitness. (1996). In The Oxford Compact English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Print dictionaries still don’t usually list authors, although in some specialist dictionaries and encyclopedias an author may be listed. In this case, include it at the beginning of the citation. In-text citations for dictionaries For in-text citations with no author and date, place the title of the entry in quotation marks, and use “n.d.” in place of a missing date: (“Citation,” n.d.) If an author or date is listed, include these as in a standard APA in-text citation: (Graham, 2019) 7th edition updates If you’re following the 7th edition and listing the publisher as author, you should also do so in the in-text citation: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
How to cite a journal article in APA StyleAn APA Style citation for a journal article includes the usual elements of an APA citation, plus the volume and issue number, the page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format. You can also use the Scribbr Citation Generator to generate your APA journal article citations. All you need is the URL or DOI of the journal article. With the click of a button, the generator retrieves all the necessary information. [citation-widget style="apa" type="journal"] Basic format for an APA journal citation The article title appears in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name is italicized and in title case (all major words capitalized). Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(issue), page range. https://doi.org/xxxx Example Mounier-Kuhn, P. (2012). Computer science in French universities: Early entrants and latecomers. Information & Culture: A Journal of History, 47(4), 414–456. https://doi.org/10.7560/IC47402 In-text citation (Mounier-Kuhn, 2012) When viewing a journal article online, the required information can usually be found on the access page: Linking to online journal articles A DOI should always be used where available. Some databases do not list one, but you may still find one by looking for the same article on another database. You don’t need to include the name of the database in your citation. If no DOI is available and the article was accessed through a database, do not include a URL. If the article is not from a database, but from another website (e.g. the journal's own website), you should ideally use a stable URL: this is often provided under a “share” button. Otherwise, use the URL from your browser. Citing unpublished journal articles When citing from an article that has not yet been formally published, the format varies depending on whether or not it has already been submitted to a journal. Unpublished article The text of an article which has not yet appeared online or in publication (i.e. which is only available directly from the author) should be cited as an "unpublished article." The title is italicized and information about the author’s university is included if available: Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Unpublished article, Department Name, University Name. Example Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children. Unpublished article, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. In-text citation (Smith & Davis, 2019) Article submitted for publication An article which has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as an “article submitted for publication.” The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included: Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Article submitted for publication, Department Name, University Name. Example Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children. Article submitted for publication, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. In-text citation (Smith & Davis, 2019) 7th edition changes In the 7th edition of the APA manual, these two formats are slightly different. In both cases, the information appears in the same place, but in square brackets and followed by a period: Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children [Unpublished article]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. Article in press An article which has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as “in press.” Here, the name of the journal is included, university information is omitted, and “in press” is written in place of the year (both in the reference list and the in-text citation): Format Last name, Initials. (in press). Article title. Journal Name. Example Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (in press). Language acquisition among autistic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology. In-text citation (Smith & Davis, in press) Special issue of a journal If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author’s name and article title: Format Last name, Initials. (Ed. or Eds.) (Year). Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Name, Issue(Volume). Example Pollak, S. D., Camras, L. A., & Cole, P. M. (Eds.) (2019). New perspectives on the development of human emotion [Special issue]. Developmental Psychology, 55(9). Note that if you want to cite an individual article from the special issue, it can just be cited as a regular article. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a movie in APATo cite a movie in APA Style, list the film’s producer(s) and director as authors and the production studio as publisher. The title is written in sentence case and italicized, followed by the label “Motion picture” in square brackets. The in-text citation includes the last names of the producer(s) and the year. If you are referring to a specific quote or scene from the movie, add a timestamp to direct the reader to the relevant part. APA movie citation APA format Producer Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Film title [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Reference list Carroll, G., Giler, D., & Hill, W. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox. First in-text citation (Carroll, Giler, & Hill, 1979, 0:45:14) Subsequent in-text citations (Carroll et al., 1979, 1:20:43) Citing movies in different formats In general, you don’t need to specify the format in which you watched the film. However, if you are discussing a specific version of the film (for example, if you refer to the special features of a DVD), you can specify the version in the citation. In these cases, the publication date is the release year of the specific version, not the general release: Dempsey, C., Guiney, E., & Magiday, L. (Producers), & Lanthimos, Y. (Director & Producer). (2016). The lobster [Motion picture; DVD release]. UK: Film4. As in the above example, when the director is also a producer, this information should be included. Movies on Netflix and other streaming services You don’t usually need to state that a film was viewed on a particular streaming service (like Netflix or Hulu). Just follow the standard format without mentioning where you viewed the film. However, if the film was also produced by a streaming company (e.g. a Netflix Original), you should replace the studio information with a URL linking to their site: Johnson, M., Bernstein, M., Newirth, C., & Paul, A. (Producers), & Gilligan, V. (Director & Producer). (2019). El Camino: A breaking bad movie [Motion picture]. Retrieved from https://www.netflix.com 7th edition updates In the 7th edition, the format of a movie citation is simplified. It’s now recommended to omit producers, listing only the director(s) of the film in the author position. Additionally, no country is listed, and the word “Film” is used instead of “Motion picture”: Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Film]. Twentieth Century Fox. Where to find source information for a movie citation The source information you need for your citation can usually be found in the movie’s end credits or on the packaging for a physical release. Otherwise, you can find it on IMDb. Studio information can be found further down this page, under the heading “Company Credits.” Click on “Full Cast and Crew” and scroll down to “Produced by” for producer information:  
How to cite a newspaper article in APA StyleNewspaper articles are cited much like other periodical sources in APA style, with the specific publication date included if available, and the name of the newspaper written in italics. Print newspaper citations include a page number or range; online newspaper citations include a URL. Using the buttons below, you can explore how to cite an online newspaper article with one or more authors. With the APA Citation Generator, you can automatically create citations for print or online newspaper articles and build your reference list. Generate an APA newspaper citation Citing newspapers in print Printed newspapers are sometimes divided into sections, which are identified by a letter before the page number (e.g. A1, B4). Always include the letters when page numbers are formatted in this way. Newspaper articles may also appear on discontinuous pages (for example, an article which begins on the front page but continues on page 20). Make sure to only cite the relevant pages, separating different pages and page ranges with commas: Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. Note that with newspapers, unlike with other source types, APA requires you to write “p.” (for a single page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before page numbers in your reference list entry. 7th edition updates The 7th edition of the APA manual recommends omitting “p.” or “pp.” and just writing the numbers alone in the reference list entry, as with other source types. Citing newspaper articles accessed online If you accessed the article on the newspaper's website, include a URL instead of page numbers. APA recommends linking to the homepage rather than the specific article, because article links can stop working: Schwartz, F., & McBride, C. (2019, November 18). Trump administration says Israeli settlements aren’t illegal. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://wsj.com 7th edition updates The 7th edition instead recommends linking directly to the article, and omitting the words “Retrieved from”: Schwartz, F., & McBride, C. (2019, November 18). Trump administration says Israeli settlements aren’t illegal. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/trump-administration-to-say-israeli-settlements-arent-illegal-11574104691 Online-only news sites Don’t use the newspaper citation format for articles on news sites that are not linked to a print newspaper, such as Reuters or BBC News. Instead, use the format of a website citation. The URL links directly to the article, and the name of the site is not included: Ahmad, J., & Shalizi, H. (2019, November 19). U.S., Australian hostages freed by Afghan Taliban in swap. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban/u-s-australian-hostages-freed-by-afghan-taliban-in-swap-idUSKBN1XT0GF 7th edition updates The 7th edition introduces a specific format for online-only news sites. The article title is italicized, the name of the site is included (not italicized), and the link is not preceded by “Retrieved from”: Ahmad, J., & Shalizi, H. (2019, November 19). U.S., Australian hostages freed by Afghan Taliban in swap. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban/u-s-australian-hostages-freed-by-afghan-taliban-in-swap-idUSKBN1XT0GF [FAQ-article]
How to cite a website in APA styleAPA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date. If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper, magazine, or dictionary), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end. Use the buttons below to explore the format. [citation-widget style="apa" type="website"] Citing an entire website When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site: One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos. For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page. However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry. How to cite online articles Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears. Articles from online versions of newspapers and magazines Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL. Give the homepage URL instead of the specific article, as the latter is more likely to change over time. MacGillis, A. (2019, November 11). The case against Boeing. The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/ 7th edition updates The 7th edition of the APA manual recommends linking directly to the specific article. It also omits the words “Retrieved from”: MacGillis, A. (2019, November 11). The case against Boeing. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/11/18/the-case-against-boeing Articles from blogs Citations of blogs include the words “Blog post” and the article URL. The name of the blog is not included: Alexander, S. (2019, November 13). Autism and intelligence: Much more than you wanted to know [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://slatestarcodex.com/2019/11/13/autism-and-intelligence-much-more-than-you-wanted-to-know/ 7th edition updates If you are following the 7th edition, you no longer have to include “[Blog post]” or “Retrieved from”, and you do include the name of the blog in italics: Alexander, S. (2019, November 13). Autism and intelligence: Much more than you wanted to know. Slate Star Codex. https://slatestarcodex.com/2019/11/13/autism-and-intelligence-much-more-than-you-wanted-to-know/ Other online articles For articles from other websites, including news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), the name of the site is not mentioned, and the URL links directly to the article: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127 7th edition updates In the 7th edition, articles from other websites have their titles italicized, and the name of the site is included but not italicized: Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127 Websites with no author When a web page does not list any author, replace the author name with the title of the page or article. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks, and shorten it to the first few words if necessary. APA website citation (no author) Format Article Title. (Year, month day). Retrieved from URL Example Australia fires: 'Catastrophic' alerts in South Australia and Victoria. (2019, November 11). Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-50483410 In-text citation ("Australia fires,” 2019) Note that if the source is attributed to a specific organization or company, you should use this as the author name instead. Websites with no date When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” ("no date") in all citations. If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it. APA website citation (no date) Format Author or Organization Name. (n.d.). Article Title. Retrieved month day, year, from URL Reference list University of Amsterdam. (n.d.).  About the UvA. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html In-text citation (University of Amsterdam, n.d.) How to cite from social media 7th edition updates Since the 6th edition of the APA manual does not provide guidelines for citing from social media, the information in this section follows the 7th edition. As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound) in square brackets: Eno, B. (2019, September 21). Last night an immersive arts installation by VOICES FOR THE FUTURE was shown at the UN Headquarters, NY. [Images attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/2XfDB4Q On some social media sites, users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets: Dorsey, J. [@jack]. (2018, March 1). We’re committing Twitter to help increase the collective health, openness, and civility of public conversation, and to hold ourselves publicly [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/jack/status/969234275420655616 In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time: Dorsey, J. [@jack]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 14, 2019, from https://twitter.com/jack [FAQ-article]
How to cite a YouTube video in APATo cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the video title (italicized), the channel that uploaded it, the upload date, and a link to the video. APA YouTube citation example Format Uploader. (Year, Month day). Title of the video [Video file]. Retrieved from url. Reference list Scribbr. (2019, November 26). APA manual 7th edition: 17 most notable changes [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/zeSIXD6y3WQ In-text citation (Scribbr, 2019) Note that the same format works for other video sites like Vimeo. 7th edition changes In the 7th edition of APA, the description in square brackets is just “Video,” not “Video file,” and the words “Retrieved from” are omitted. Additionally, the name of the site is included before the URL: Scribbr. (2019, November 26). APA manual 7th edition: 17 most notable changes [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/zeSIXD6y3WQ Where to find citation information for a YouTube video The information you’ll need for your citation is easy to locate on YouTube – it’s located just below the video: Authors and channel names The “author” of a YouTube video is not necessarily the person or group who created the video. Instead, APA requires you to list the uploader of the video as author. This is to avoid confusion and make it easier for the reader to locate the video. If the uploader is an individual whose real name is known and is different from their channel name, both should be included. The real name is written in the standard format, while the channel name follows in square brackets and is written exactly as it is on YouTube, retaining any unconventional capitalization or spacing: Fantano, A. [theneedledrop]. (2019, December 21). Top 50 albums of 2019 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/q8wm4QFCqhE If the author’s real name is unknown or the uploader is not an individual, the screen name is included alone, with no brackets: University of Oxford. (2019, December 15). Could we run the UK on carbon-free energy? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/-EoVRpy4J_U Where the channel name is the same as the author’s real name, it only needs to be written once: Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/244405542 In-text citations for YouTube videos For an in-text citation of a YouTube video, use whichever name appears first in the full citation, whether that's a real name or a channel name: (Fantano, 2019) (University of Oxford, 2019) When you quote or refer to a specific part of a video, include a timestamp pointing to the relevant moment in the video: (University of Oxford, 2019, 0:29) How to cite a YouTube channel Sometimes you might need to cite a whole channel instead of a single video, as when you’re discussing a channel’s content in general. In this case, don’t include the year the channel was created – just use “n.d.” (no date) as it’s the current content of the channel that’s relevant. Write “YouTube channel” instead of “Video file” in the square brackets. University of Oxford. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/user/oxford “Home” refers to the homepage of the channel; if you’re citing something else like the videos or playlists tab, replace accordingly: University of Oxford. (n.d.). Videos [YouTube channel]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/user/oxford/videos
How to cite an image in APA StyleAn APA image citation includes the creator’s name, the year, the image title and format (e.g. painting, photograph, map), and the location where you accessed or viewed the image. APA image citation example Format Author name. (Year). Image title [Format]. Retrieved from URL or Museum, Location. Reference list Delacroix, E. (1826–1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. Paris, France: The Louvre. In-text citation (Delacroix, 1826–1827) When you include an image or photo in your text, as well as citing the source, you also need to list it as a figure. Images you created yourself don’t have to be cited, but should still be included in the list of figures. You can create your citations automatically with the free APA citation generator. Generate an APA image citation Citing images accessed online For online images, the source location is the URL. Include a link directly to the image where possible, as it may be hard to locate from the other information given: Thompson, M. (2020). Canyon wren [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/2icfzq4 7th edition changes In the 7th edition of APA, you no longer write “Retrieved from” before the URL, and you include the website name: Thompson, M. (2020). Canyon wren [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2icfzq4 Missing information It can often be hard to find accurate information about images accessed online. Try looking for alternate sources of an image, checking image sites like Flickr that provide reliable information on their images, or finding a different image in cases where the one you planned to use has no reliable information. However, if you do need to cite an image with no author, date or title listed, there are ways around this. For untitled images, include a description of the image, in square brackets, where the title would usually go. If there is no publication date, add “n.d.” in place of the date, and add the date that you accessed the image. Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps map of Utrecht city center]. Retrieved January 10, 2020, from https://goo.gl/maps/keKNQZHZTS7ticwb8 For images where the creator is unknown, you can use the title or description in the author position: [Photograph of a violent confrontation during the Hong Kong protests]. (2019). Retrieved January 5, 2020, from https://twitter.com/xyz11111112 Citing images viewed in person If you viewed an image in person rather than online – for example in a museum or gallery, or in another text – the source information is different. For images viewed in a museum or other institution, you include the name and location of the institution where you viewed the image: Bosch, H. [c. 1482]. The last judgement [Triptych]. Bruges, Belgium: Groeningemuseum. Location information includes the city and state (e.g. Chicago, IL) for locations within the US, and the city and country anywhere else. Citations for images sourced from a print publication such as a book, journal, or magazine include information about the print source in which the image originally appeared: American Psychological Association. (2020). Sample conceptual model [Infographic]. In Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 238). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 Including images as figures When you include the image itself in your paper, it should be properly formatted as an APA figure, with a number, a description/title, and an entry in your list of figures. The title or description of a figure should appear immediately below the image itself, and will vary according to the type of image cited. For example, an artwork might include the work’s title, the artist’s name, the date of composition, and some information about the materials used: The format for figure captions is less fixed than it is for citations, but it will always include a figure number and a title or description of the image, and may also include copyright/permissions information, additional explanatory notes, or other elements. Note that any figures that you didn't create yourself should appear in both your list of figures and your reference page. Figures you create yourself only appear in the list of figures.
How to cite an interview in APA styleThe format of an APA interview citation depends on whether the source is a published interview or an interview you conducted yourself. Personal interviews that can't be retrieved by the reader shouldn't be included in an APA reference list. Instead, cite the interview as a personal communication in the text. According to the CEO, the company's communications strategy is moving in a different direction (B. Jones, personal communication, January 22, 2020). If the interview was published in a retrievable source (e.g. a website, journal, newspaper or book), follow the usual citation format for that type of source. You can use Scribbr's free APA Citation Generator to create in-text citations and reference list entries for different source types. [citation-widget style="apa" default="book"] Citing personal interviews in APA An unpublished interview that you conducted as part of your research should not be included in the reference list. How you cite them depends on whether you have included the interview as an appendix. Interviews in appendices If you have included the interview transcripts as appendices, simply refer to the relevant appendices when mentioning information from the interview. According to one participant... (Appendix 1). Interviews not in appendices If the interview is not included in the appendices, you should follow the format of an APA personal communication. This citation format is used for any source that your reader isn't able to access for themselves. To cite interviews as personal communications, include the interviewee's initials and last name, the words "personal communication," and the date on which the interview was conducted, all in parentheses next to the relevant information: An interview with the head of department showed that … (P. Bankers, personal communication, March 3, 2015). According to P. Bankers (personal communication, March 3, 2015), the problem can be solved by … Even if you did not create a transcript of the interview, you must reference any information that you got from someone else as a personal communication. Citing published interviews in APA If you want to include information from an interview that has been published and can be retrieved by the reader, then you can cite it as you would normally cite that type of source. The author is the person who wrote the article (usually the interviewer). The name of the person interviewed is not included in the citation or in the reference list. However, it's important to make it clear exactly who said what when you quote from an interview conducted by someone else. Example: quoting with unclear attribution The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). The citation here implies that this quote is from Davenport – but in fact, it is a quote from Jim Bridenstine, who is interviewed in Davenport's article. In this case, you should clearly state the interviewee's name in the sentence to make it clear who is responsible for the quote. Example: clearly attributing a quote to the original source The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory, as highlighted by NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine in a recent interview with the Washington Post: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). The format of the reference list entry depends on the type of source the interview was published in. Interview published in a newspaper Format Author name, initials. (year, day month). Article title. Name of publication (page number if available). Retrieved from URL Reference list Davenport, C. (2018, June 5). NASA’s new administrator says he’s talking to companies about taking over operations of the International Space Station. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2018/06/05/nasas-new-administrator-says-hes-talking-to-companies-to-take-over-the-international-space-station In-text citation NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine confirmed that the United States would like to return their main space operations to US land: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). You can use our quick citation examples to correctly cite interviews published in other source types. Book Website Journal YouTube [FAQ-article]
Personal communications in APA styleIn APA Style, a personal communication is any source that is not publicly accessible. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list. Example Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2015). What is a personal communication? A personal communication is any source you refer to that the reader will not be able to access – either because it was not recorded, is deliberately kept private for reasons of confidentiality, or is accessible only to a specific group (e.g. members of a particular institution). Because the reader cannot look up these sources independently, APA Style states that it is not appropriate to include them in a reference list. The point of a reference list is to allow the reader to find your sources, so inaccessible sources do not belong there. Some common examples of sources that should be treated as personal communications include: Private conversations, emails, letters and messages Interviews with (and survey responses from) research participants Private social media content Unrecorded performances and lectures How to cite personal communications When citing a personal communication in your text, you only need to give the person’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in parentheses: (F. Davidson, personal communication, January 12, 2017) If it’s relevant or important to the reader’s understanding, you can specify the type of communication involved: When contacted for comment, Johnson stated that the controversy was “absurd” (H. Johnson, email, March 5, 2019). During the performance, the term “Anthropocene” was used repeatedly (J. Wilson, performance, March 13, 2018). Private messages on social media are always personal communications. Other social media content should also be cited as personal communication if it is not public – that is, if it can only be accessed by members of a specific group or friends of a specific user: Members of the online community followed the controversy closely, with one user referring to it as a “media circus” (G. Richards, comment in a private Facebook group, April 25, 2018). Citing your research participants Quotes from your research participants, such as interviewees and survey respondents, are also treated as personal communications, but they are often anonymized for reasons of confidentiality. There are several ways of handling this. Where it is not important to distinguish participants from each other, you can simply refer to them without any specific attribution: One participant stated that… Where more detail is appropriate, you might want to distinguish participants by personal characteristics like age, profession, or gender: (male participant, 52 years old) Where it’s important to be able to refer to specific participants, you can use false names (as long as you clarify somewhere that this is what you’re doing) or codenames: Participant D stated that… A participant named John (names used throughout are pseudonyms) referred to… Note that it’s usually unnecessary to include dates in these references, as the dates of the interviews should generally be specified in your methodology section.

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