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Referencing according to the APA Style can be a difficult task. We have prepared some resources to help you:

Examples APA Style references

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Citing personal communications in APA StyleIn APA Style, a personal communication is any source that is not accessible to your readers. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list. Example Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2015). What is a personal communication? A personal communication is any source you refer to that the reader will not be able to access—either because it was not recorded, is deliberately kept private for reasons of confidentiality, or is accessible only to a specific group (e.g. members of a particular institution or online community). Because the reader cannot look up these sources independently, APA Style states that it is not appropriate to include them in a reference list. The point of a reference list is to allow the reader to find your sources, so inaccessible sources do not belong there. Some common examples of sources that should be treated as personal communications include: Private conversations, emails, letters and messages Private social media content Unrecorded performances and lectures How to cite personal communications When citing a personal communication in your text, you only need to give the person’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in parentheses: (F. Davidson, personal communication, January 12, 2017) If it’s relevant or important to the reader’s understanding, you can specify the type of communication involved: When contacted for comment, Johnson stated that the controversy was “absurd” (H. Johnson, email, March 5, 2019). During the performance, the term “Anthropocene” was used repeatedly (J. Wilson, performance, March 13, 2018). Private messages on social media are always personal communications. Other social media content should also be cited as personal communication if it is not public – that is, if it can only be accessed by members of a specific group or friends of a specific user: Members of the online community followed the controversy closely, with one user referring to it as a “media circus” (G. Richards, comment in a private Facebook group, April 25, 2018). Quoting your research participants Quotes from your research participants, such as interviewees and survey respondents, are treated slightly differently from personal communications. You don’t need to include a citation when quoting your research participants, but the transcript or responses you’re quoting from should usually be included in an appendix. Just refer to this appendix the first time you quote from it, e.g. “(See Appendix A).” Research participants are often anonymized for reasons of confidentiality. There are several ways of handling this. Where it is not important to distinguish participants from each other, you can simply refer to them without any specific attribution: One participant stated that… Where more detail is appropriate, you might want to distinguish participants by personal characteristics like age, profession, or gender: (male participant, 52 years old) Where it’s important to be able to refer to specific participants, you can use false names (as long as you clarify somewhere that this is what you’re doing) or numerical/alphabetical labels: Participant D stated that… A participant named John (names used throughout are pseudonyms) referred to… [FAQ-article]
Citing tables and figures from other sources in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. When you reprint or adapt a table or figure from another source, the source should be acknowledged in an in-text citation and in your reference list. Follow the format for the source type you took the table or figure from. You also have to include a copyright statement in a note beneath the table or figure. The example below shows how to cite a figure from a journal article. Reference list Shi, F., & Zhu, L. (2019). Analysis of trip generation rates in residential commuting based on mobile phone signaling data. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 201–220. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264 In-text citation (Shi & Zhu, 2019, p. 212) Copyright note Note. From “Analysis of Trip Generation Rates in Residential Commuting Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data,” by F. Shi and L. Zhu, 2019, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), p. 212 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264). CC BY-NC. Citing tables and figures Tables and figures taken from other sources are numbered and presented in the same format as your other tables and figures. Refer to them as Table 1, Figure 3, etc., but include an in-text citation after you mention them to acknowledge the source. In-text citation exampleThe results in Table 1 (Ajzen, 1991, p. 179) show that … You should also include the source in the reference list. Follow the standard format for the source type you took the table or figure from. Reference list entry exampleAjzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T Including a copyright note As well as a citation and reference, when you reproduce a table or figure in your own work, you also need to acknowledge the source in a note directly below it. The image below shows an example of a table with a copyright note. If you’ve reproduced a table or figure exactly, start the note with “From …” If you’ve adapted it in some way for your own purposes (e.g. incorporating part of a table or figure into a new table or figure in your paper), write “Adapted from …” This is followed by information about the source (title, author, year, publisher, and location), and then copyright information at the end. Types of copyright and permission A source will either be under standard copyright, under a Creative Commons license, or in the public domain. You need to state which of these is the case. Standard copyright Copyright 2020 by Scribbr. Creative Commons CC-BY-NC. Public domain In the public domain. Under standard copyright, you sometimes also need permission from the publisher to reprint or adapt materials. If you sought and obtained permission, mention this at the end of the note. Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission. Look for information on copyright and permissions from the publisher. If you’re having trouble finding this information, consult your supervisor for advice. Examples from different source types From a journal article From a website From a book Note format Note. From or Adapted from “Article Title,” by Initials. Last name, Year, Journal Name, Volume(Issue), p. Page number (URL or DOI). Copyright statement. Note Note. Adapted from “Analysis of Trip Generation Rates in Residential Commuting Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data,” by F. Shi and L. Zhu, 2019, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), p. 212 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264). CC BY-NC. Reference list Shi, F., & Zhu, L. (2019). Analysis of trip generation rates in residential commuting based on mobile phone signaling data. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 201–220. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264 Note format Note. From or Adapted from Page Title, by Initials. Last name, Year (URL). Copyright statement. Note Note. From A Complete Guide to APA In-Text Citation, by R. Streefkerk, 2020 (https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/). Copyright 2020 by Scribbr. Reference list Streefkerk, R. (2020, October 2). A complete guide to APA in-text citation. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/ Note format Note. From or Adapted from Book Title (p. Page number), by Initial. Last name, Year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright statement. Note Note. From The Harvard Medical School Guide to Men’s Health, by H. B. Simon, 2004, p. 107, Free Press. Copyright 2004 by Free Press. Reprinted with permission. Reference list Simon, H. B. (2002). The Harvard Medical School guide to men’s health. Free Press. [FAQ-article]
AppsThe APA Style has specific rules for the reference of information from an app or mobile application software. In addition to the name of the person or entity that holds the rights for the app you also have to add in square brackets that it is a mobile application.  Mobile application APA-format RightsholderName, (Year). TitleSoftwareProgram (Versionnumber) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Tinder Inc. (2015). Tinder (Version 4.5.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/nl/app/tinder/id547702041?mt=8 In the text According to the mobile application software 'Tinder' … (Tinder Inc., 2015). Tinder Inc. (2015) suggested in the mobile application software 'Tinder' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Commercial Radio/TVThe reference of a commercial from radio/TV according to the APA Style is different from the one for a Radio/TV-show.  Commercial Radio/TV APA-format LastNameWriter, Initials (writer). And/or LastNameDirector, Initials (director). And/or NameCompany. (DateCommercialAired). TitleCommercial [Television or radio commercial]. City, State/Country: Television Network or Radio Station. Optional: Retrieved From http://WebAddress In reference list Scott, J. T. (director). (2014). Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial [Television Commercial]. St. Louis, MO: Fox. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQB7QRyF4p4 In the text According to the Television commercial  'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' … (Scott, 2014). Scott (2006) suggested in the TV commercial 'Puppy Love/Budweiser USA: Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial' that … .
Dissertation of another studentYou can use other theses as a source for your own dissertation. Take into account that theses often still contain mistakes and are not always a reliable source. So don’t base your dissertation too much on other theses. According to the APA Style you also have to add to your reference that it is a dissertation of another student.   Dissertation of another student APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleThesisOrDissertation (Thesis or Master’s dissertation). Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Huijg, N. T. (2015). The Determinants of the Dutch Demand for Military Spending (Master’s dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/30207 In the text According to earlier research in a master's dissertation ... (Huijg, 2015). Huijg (2015) states in his master's dissertation that ... . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
FacebookWhen referring to Facebook you always have to take the privacy policy of a social media into account. According to the APA Style you can handle Facebook as a normal internet source and add the type of source in squared brackets.  Facebook APA-format AuthorLastName, FirstInitial. (Year, Month Day). TitleFacebookUpdate [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Zuckerberg, m. (2015, July 1). As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satiellites to connect [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102217102231151 In the text According to the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' … (Zuckerberg, 2015). Zuckerberg (2015) suggested in the Facebook status update 'As part of our internet.org efforts, we're working on ways to use drones and satellites to connect' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Forum postWhen using a message or post from a forum or online discussion group, you have to take the following APA Style into account.  Forum-post APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. [Alias]. (Year, Month Day). TitleDiscussionThread [Type Message/Reaction]. Message posted to http://WebAdress In reference list Chan, R. (2012, December 16). WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap [Online Forum Post]. Message posted to https://www.linkedin.com/grp/post/114512-196724588?trk=groups-post-b-title In the text According to the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' … (Chan, 2012). Chan (2012) suggested in the Online Forum Post 'WACC- Reported Equity v Market Cap' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Internal documents (Intranet)When using sources from an (internship-) company like internal memos, internal company data, guidelines, transcripts or other sources from the intranet, the APA Style has specific rules. It is possible that some readers of your dissertation have access to the internal data but others don’t. When you’re doing an internship for a company, your boss will have access to the data but your professor at the University won’t. Not every reader has access to the source You can handle the source as a normal internet source. This means, you can record the short version in your text and the complete version in your reference list. Next to that you add a footnote, which explains to the readers that the source is from the intranet and may not be accessible to everyone.  Internal documents (and the reader has access to these documents) APA-format NameOrganisation. (Year, Month day). NameDocument [TypeDocument]. Retrieved from http://Website In reference list Apple. (2016, September 18). Guidelines employees [Guidelines]. Retrieved from intranet.apple.com/newsupdate/guideline.pdf In the text Internal documents show that … (Apple, 2014)1. Internal documents from Apple (2014)1 show that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator Example - Footnote with an intranet source No link available If there is no link available for the source, we advise you to make use of the APA rules for ‘personal communication’. This means you don’t have to record the source in your reference list. Important internal document If the document plays an important role in your dissertation, you could also add it to the appendix (ask the company first, if that's okay). Instead of recording the source according to the APA Style, you only refer to the appendix.
OrationThe oration is a speech given by the professor, when he or she takes office. When you want to refer to an oration according to the APA Style , you first have to find out if the oration is published or not. The oration is published It is common that a professor publishes his oration. That happens mostly via a pdf-document, which you can download from the internet. In that case you use the same notation as for a book. In square brackets you add [oration] to the reference. Oration APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleBook [Oration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Hagoort, G. (2007). Cultureel ondernemerschap [Oration]. Retrieved from http://binoq.nl/lib/Documenten/ cultureel%20ondernemerschap/Oratie_Hagoort.pdf In the text Research suggests that … (Hagoort, 2007). In the oration Hagoort (2007) found that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator The oration is not published When the oration is not published, the speech is not accessible for a third party. In that case you can use the APA Style for “personal communication”. Personal communication APA-format Don't record in the reference list In reference list Don't record in the reference list In the text From the oration it was obvious that … (E. Smet, personal communication, September 22, 2015). E. Smet (personal communication, September 22, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .
PDF documentIt is possible to use PDF documents as a source in your thesis. For the right APA reference you first have to determine which kind of source it is. PDF documents can be books, reports, articles etc. For the right reference according to the APA Style you can find more information on the following sites: Book Journal Report
Press releaseAccording to the APA Style you can handle the reference of a press release in the same way as a normal internet source. After the title you should add ‘press release’ in square brackets. Press release (online) APA-format AuthorLastName, Initials. Or NameOrganization. (Year, Month day). TitlePressRelease [Press release]. Retrieved from: http://WebAddress In reference list The President’s Office. (2015, August 5). Vice President arrives in Egypt on official trip [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.presidencymaldives.gov.mv/Index.aspx?lid=11&dcid=15744 In the text In 2015 President Ahmed Adeeb Abdul Ghafoor visited Egypt for x and y (The President’s Office, 2015). The President’s Office (2015) published a press release to ... . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Radio/Tv-showWhen using information from a radio or TV show, you always have to add the producer of the show to your reference. The producer can normally be found on the website of the show. The APA Style for a radio/TV-show is different from the one for a commercial. Example radio-show in APA Style Radio APA-format LastName, Initials. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer. In reference list Dane, F. T. (DJ). (2015, July 31). Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo [Radio Broadcast]. In P. Franssen (producer). Frank and Friday Show. Hilversum, The Netherlands: Radio 538. In the text According to the radio broadcast  'Lucille Werner manipulated Lingo' … (Dane, 2015). Dane (2015) suggested in the radio show 'Frank and Friday Show' that … . Example TV-show in APA Style  TV show APA-format LastName, Initials. (Function). (Year, Month Day). TitleEpisode [Format]. In FirstInitial LastNameProducer (Function). NameSeries. City, State/Country: Producer. In reference list Attenborough, D. F. (narrator). (2006, November 19). Jungles [TV-show]. In A. Fothergill (executive producer). Planet Earth. London, United Kingdom: BBC In the text According to the documentary  … (Attenborough, 2006). Attenborough (2006) suggested in the documentary 'Jungles' that … .
SoftwareAccording to the APA Style you don’t have to record ‘’standard software’’ like Microsoft Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS, in your reference list. If you use special software, you have to record it. In that case remember to record the reference using the correct APA Style. When an individual person holds the rights for the software, the name of that individual is recorded as the author. Otherwise the software has to be handled as an unwritten document. In that case you can use the title of the software for the author’s name. If the software is online accessible, use the URL instead of the name of the publisher and the location. Software with author  Software with author APA-format RightsholderName. (Year). TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list JetBrains s.r.o. (2015). JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3) [Software]. Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/ In the text According to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (JetBrains s.r.o., 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the Software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator Software without author  Software without author APA-format TitleSoftware (VersionNumber) [Software]. (Year). Retrieved from http://WebAdress In reference list Super software (8.0.3) [Software] (2015). Retrieved from https://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm/ In the text According to the software 'JetBrains PhpStorm (8.0.3)' … (Super software, 2015). JetBrains s.r.o. (2015) suggested in the software 'Super software (8.0.3)' that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
Statistic databaseWhen using specific data for your dissertation, it is important to know how a dataset (e.g. from Datastream) has to be recorded according to the APA Style. In that case you use the notation for a normal internet source and write ‘dataset’ after the title in square brackets. Statistic database APA-format NameDatabase. (YearOfPublication, Month Day). TitleDatabase [Data set]. Retrieved from http://WebAddress In reference list Central Bureau for Statistics. (2015, July 28). Statistics Netherlands: Dutch exports to Russia almost reduced by half [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/the­mas/internationale-handel/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2015/nederlandse-export-naar-rusland-bijna-gehalveerd.htm In the text Data on export to Russia suggests that … (Central Bureau for Statistics, 2015). Data on export to Russia from Central Bureau for Statistics (2015) suggests that … . Open example in the APA Citation Generator
SurveyIf you’re referring to your own survey research (and its results), you don’t normally need to use a formal APA Style citation. What you do instead depends on which of the following is true: Your survey/results are in an appendix to your dissertation Your survey/results are not in an appendix to your dissertation The survey/results are in an appendix In this case, just refer to the appendix that contains the survey. Example: Referencing a survey in the appendix The survey asked respondents... (Appendix 1). Overall, the survey showed that men more often... (Appendix 1). The survey/results are not in an appendix Since you can’t refer to an appendix, you should instead refer to a “personal communication”. Using this term indicates that the survey/results are not available to third parties – including the reader. Personal communication APA Format Not included in the literature list. In the literature list Not included in the literature list. In the text The survey showed that... (B. Swaen, personal communication, November 3, 2016). We recommend that you always include your survey and its results in an appendix. If that isn’t possible for some reason, you can avoid having to use “personal communication” by going for the Intranet solution.
How to cite a book in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. A book citation in APA Style always includes the author’s name, the publication year, the book title, and the publisher. Use the interactive tool to see examples. Note that the format is slightly different for reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias. Enter the ISBN or DOI to instantly generate an accurate APA book citation. [citation-widget style="apa" type="book"] Basic book citation format The APA in-text citation for a book includes the author's last name, the year, and (if relevant) a page number. In the reference list, start with the author's last name and initials, followed by the year. The book title is written in sentence case (only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns). Include any other contributors (e.g. editors and translators) and the edition if specified (e.g. "2nd ed."). Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. (Editor/translator initials, Last name, Ed. or Trans.) (Edition). Publisher. Reference entry Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. Verso. In-text citation (Anderson, 1983, p. 23) Ebooks and online books A citation of an ebook (i.e. a book accessed on an e-reader) or a book viewed online (e.g. on Google Books or in PDF form) includes the DOI where available. If there is no DOI, link to the page where you viewed the book, or where the ebook can be purchased or accessed. Since ebooks sometimes do not include page numbers, APA recommends using other methods of identifying a specific passage in your in-text citations—for example, a chapter or section title, or a paragraph number. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. Publisher. URL or DOI Reference entry Burns, A. (2018). Milkman. Faber & Faber. https://amzn.to/2ObKrVf In-text citation (Burns, 2018, para. 15) Citing a chapter from an edited book When citing a particular chapter from a book containing texts by various authors (e.g. a collection of essays), begin the citation with the author of the chapter and mention the book’s editor(s) later in the reference. A page range identifies the chapter’s location in the book. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor initials. Last name (Ed. or Eds.), Book title (pp. page range). Publisher. DOI if available Reference entry Belsey, C. (2006). Poststructuralism. In S. Malpas & P. Wake (Eds.), The Routledge companion to critical theory (pp. 51–61). Routledge. In-text citation (Belsey, 2006, p. 55). Multivolume books Some books come in multiple volumes. You may want to cite the entire book if you’ve used multiple volumes, or just a single volume if that was all you used. Citing a single volume When citing from one volume of a multivolume book, the format varies slightly depending on whether each volume has a title or just a number. If the volume has a specific title, this should be written as part of the title in your reference list entry. Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot: Vol. 1. Collected and uncollected poems (C. Ricks & J. McCue, Eds.). Faber & Faber. If the volume is only numbered, not titled, the volume number is not italicized and appears in parentheses after the title. Dylan, B. (2005). Chronicles (Vol. 1). Simon & Schuster. Citing a multivolume book as a whole When citing the whole book, mention the volumes in parentheses after the title. Individual volume titles are not included even if they do exist. Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot (Vols. 1–2) (C. Ricks & J. McCue, Eds.). Faber & Faber. Where to find the information for an APA book citation All the information you need to cite a book can usually be found on the title and copyright pages. The APA reference list entry for the book above would look like this: Butler, C. (2002). Postmodernism: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a conference paper in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. The format for citing conference papers in APA Style depends on whether the paper has been published, and if so, in what format. To cite a paper that has been presented at a conference but not published, include the author’s name, the date of the conference, the title of the paper (italicized), “Paper presentation” in square brackets, the name and location of the conference, and a URL or DOI if available. Format Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day–Day). Paper title [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, City, State, Country. URL Reference list Jang, S. (2019, August 8–11). Deconstructing the opposition of natural/arbitrary in Coleridge's theory of language [Paper presentation]. NASSR 2019: Romantic Elements, Chicago, IL, United States. In-text citation (Jang, 2019) Citing a conference paper published in a journal Conference papers are sometimes published in journals. To cite one of these, use the same format as you would for any journal article. Format Author name, Initials. (Year). Paper title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), page range. DOI or URL Reference list Elgafy, A., & Lafdi, K. (2010). Nanoparticles and fiber walls interactions during nanocomposites fabrication. Journal of Scientific Conference Proceedings, 2(1), 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1166/jcp.2010.1003 In-text citation (Elgafy & Lafdi, 2010) Citing a conference paper published in a book Conference papers may also be collected in book form. In this case, you can cite one in the same way as you would cite a chapter from a book. Format Author name, initials. (Year). Paper title. In Editor name, initials (ed.), Book title (pp. page range). Publisher. DOI or URL Reference list Shareef, M., Ojo, A., & Janowski, T. (2010). Exploring digital divide in the Maldives. In Berleur, J., Hercheui, M. D., & Hilty, L. M. (eds.), What kind of information society? Governance, virtuality, surveillance, sustainability, resilience (pp. 51–63). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15479-9_5 In-text citation (Shareef, M. et al., 2010) [FAQ-article]
How to cite a dictionary in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. To cite a dictionary definition in APA Style, start with the author of the dictionary (usually an organization), followed by the publication year, the word you’re citing, the dictionary name, the publisher (if not already listed as author), and the URL. Explore the format with the buttons below. How to cite an online dictionary entry Online dictionaries tend to be continuously updated, so you usually won’t have a specific publication date. In this case, write “n.d.” (no date) in place of the year and include a retrieval date: Merriam-Webster (n.d.). Citation. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://​www.merriam-webster.com/​dictionary/​citation How to cite a print dictionary Citing from a print dictionary differs in that you’ll always be using a specific edition with a publication date, so this information should appear in your citation. Do not list the publisher a second time if it is already listed in the author position. Format Publisher Name. (Year). Entry name. In Dictionary name (Edition, p. Page number). Publisher. Reference entry HarperCollins. (2019). Rehabilitate. In Collins English dictionary (8th ed., p. 672). In-text citation (HarperCollins, 2019) Print dictionaries still don’t usually list authors, although in some specialist dictionaries an author may be listed. If an author for the individual entry is listed, list them in the author position instead of the publisher, and do include the publisher at the end.
How to cite a journal article in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. An APA Style citation for a journal article includes the author name(s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format. Enter the URL or DOI of a journal article to create perfect citations with our free APA Citation Generator. [citation-widget style="apa" type="journal"] Basic format for an APA journal citation The article title appears in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name is italicized and in title case (all major words capitalized). Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page range. DOI or URL Reference entry Mounier-Kuhn, P. (2012). Computer science in French universities: Early entrants and latecomers. Information & Culture: A Journal of History, 47(4), 414–456. https://doi.org/10.7560/IC47402 In-text citation (Mounier-Kuhn, 2012) When viewing a journal article online, the required information can usually be found on the access page. Linking to online journal articles A DOI should always be used where available. Some databases do not list one, but you may still find one by looking for the same article on another database. You don’t need to include the name of the database in your citation. If no DOI is available and the article was accessed through a database, do not include a URL. If the article is not from a database, but from another website (e.g. the journal's own website), you should ideally use a stable URL: this is often provided under a “share” button. Otherwise, copy the URL from your browser's address bar. Citing unpublished journal articles When citing from an article that has not yet been formally published, the format varies depending on whether or not it has already been submitted to a journal. Unpublished article The text of an article which has not yet appeared online or in publication (i.e. which is only available directly from the author) should be cited as an "Unpublished manuscript." The title is italicized and information about the author’s university is included if available: Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title [Unpublished manuscript]. Department Name, University Name. Reference entry Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. In-text citation (Smith & Davis, 2019) Article submitted for publication An article that has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as a “Manuscript submitted for publication.” The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included: Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department Name, University Name. Reference entry Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame. In-text citation (Smith & Davis, 2019) Article in press An article that has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as “in press.” Here, the name of the journal is included, university information is omitted, and “in press” is written in place of the year (both in the reference list and the in-text citation): Format Last name, Initials. (in press). Article title. Journal Name. Reference entry Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (in press). Language acquisition among autistic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology. In-text citation (Smith & Davis, in press) Special issue of a journal If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author’s name and article title: Format Last name, Initials. (Ed. or Eds.) (Year). Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Name, Issue(Volume). Reference entry Pollak, S. D., Camras, L. A., & Cole, P. M. (Eds.) (2019). New perspectives on the development of human emotion [Special issue]. Developmental Psychology, 55(9). In-text citation (Pollak et al., 2019) Note that if you want to cite an individual article from the special issue, it can just be cited in the basic format for journal articles. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a movie in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. To cite a movie in APA Style, list its director(s) in the author position and the production company as publisher. The title is written in sentence case and italicized, followed by the label “Film” in square brackets. The in-text citation includes the last name of the director, and the year. If you are referring to a specific quote or scene from the movie, add a timestamp to direct the reader to the relevant part. Format Last name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Movie title [Film]. Production Company. Reference entry Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Film]. Brandywine Productions. In-text citation (Scott, 1979, 0:45:14) You can easily create a movie citation using Scribbr's free APA Citation Generator. Generate your APA citations Citing movies in different formats In general, you don’t need to specify the format in which you watched the film. However, if you are discussing a specific version of the film (for example, if you refer to the special features of a DVD), you can specify the version in the citation. Lanthimos, Y. (Director). (2015). The lobster [Film; DVD release]. Film4. Where to find source information for a movie citation The source information you need for your citation can usually be found in the movie’s end credits or on the packaging for a physical release. Otherwise, you can check on IMDb. Information on the production company can be found further down this page, under the heading “Company Credits.”
How to cite a newspaper article in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. An APA Style newspaper citation includes the author, the publication date, the headline of the article, and the name of the newspaper in italics. Print newspaper citations include a page number or range; online newspaper citations include a URL. Using the buttons below, you can explore the format. Citing newspaper articles in print Printed newspapers are sometimes divided into sections, which are identified by a letter before the page number (e.g. A1, B4). Always include the letters when page numbers are formatted in this way. Newspaper articles may also appear on discontinuous pages (for example, an article which begins on the front page but continues on page 20). Make sure to only cite the relevant pages, separating different pages and page ranges with commas. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name, pages. Reference entry Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, A1, A4. In-text citation (Schwartz, 1993) Citing online newspaper articles If you accessed the article on the newspaper's website, include a URL instead of page numbers. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name. URL Reference entry Schwartz, F., & McBride, C. (2019, November 18). Trump administration says Israeli settlements aren't illegal. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/trump-administration-to-say-israeli-settlements-arent-illegal-11574104691 In-text citation (Schwartz & McBride, 2019) Online-only news sites Don’t use the newspaper citation format for articles on news sites, such as Reuters and BBC News, that are not linked to a print newspaper. Instead, use the format of a website citation. The article title is italicized, and the name of the site is written in plain text. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Site Name. URL Reference entry Ahmad, J., & Shalizi, H. (2019, November 19). Taliban frees two Western prisoners, U.S. sees hope for wider Afghan peace. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban/u-s-australian-hostages-freed-by-afghan-taliban-in-swap-idUSKBN1XT0GF In-text citation (Ahmad & Shalizi, 2019) [FAQ-article]
How to cite a patent in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. A patent is a legal document acknowledging an invention as the intellectual property of its inventor. To cite a patent in APA Style, list the name of the inventor, the year it was issued (in parentheses), the title of the patent (in italics), the patent number, the name of the issuing body, and the URL if available. Format Inventor name, Initials. (Year). Title of patent (Country/Region Patent No. Number). Issuing Body. URL Reference list Ghatak, S. (2020). Immunization testing system (U.S. Patent No. 10,788,482). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://rb.gy/ik0fb0 In-text citation (Ghatak, 2017) Where to find patent information Intellectual property organizations generally keep a comprehensive record of their patents online. For example, try the website of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. To find patent offices across the world, check here. Once you’ve found the relevant patent, all the information you need should be displayed: Note that the URL can end up being quite long, as here; use a URL shortener if necessary. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a PowerPoint in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. To reference a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style, include the name of the author (whoever presented the PowerPoint), the date it was presented, the title (italicized), “PowerPoint slides” in square brackets, the name of the department and university, and the URL where the PowerPoint can be found. Format Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). PowerPoint title [PowerPoint slides]. Department Name, University Name. URL Reference list Simonton, D. K. (2013). The mad-genius controversy [PowerPoint slides]. College of Education, University of Iowa. https://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/IowaDeltaMadGenius.pdf In-text citation (Simonton, 2013) If the PowerPoint is not accessible to your readers, cite it as a personal communication instead. Citing a PowerPoint your readers can access PowerPoint presentations should only be included in the reference list if your reader can access them for themselves. PowerPoints on password-protected platforms A login is often required to access a file on your university’s LMS (e.g. Blackboard, Canvas). In these cases, the URL included should be the login page rather than the specific location of the PowerPoint. Reference list Johnson, F. (2018, September 20). Introduction to classics [PowerPoint slides]. Faculty of Classics, Oxford University. https://login.canvas.ox.ac.uk/ In-text citation (Johnson, 2018) PowerPoints on public sites With slides that are available on a public site, rather than from your university, replace the department and university name with the name of the website. Reference list Familian, S. (2017, February 17). Visual design with data [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/sfamilian/visual-design-with-data-feb-2017/10-WHATS_GOOD_DATA_DESIGNROLLEDUP10NINJA_TIPPivot In-text citation (Familian, 2017) The same format can be used for other kinds of slides or lecture notes. Just replace “PowerPoint slides” with an appropriate description. Reference list Scribbr (2020). APA 7th edition: The most notable changes [Google Slides]. Google Drive. https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/19wGvksFKwvVEkxyyqpNqPp6sQzga96d3tt85xvqUqhU/view In-text citation (Scribbr, 2020) Citing a PowerPoint your readers can’t access If your readers won’t be able to access the PowerPoint you want to cite, it should instead be cited as a personal communication. This often depends on who will be reading your paper. For example: If you’re writing a paper for class, and you want to cite a PowerPoint that’s available on your university’s Blackboard site, you can use the standard format, because your teacher can access the slides. If you want to cite the same PowerPoint in a paper you’re submitting to a journal, you’ll have to cite it as a personal communication, because the journal’s readers can't access it. Personal communications are not included in the reference list; just mention them in parentheses in the text. In a class lecture, Smith stated that the field is undergoing a “revolution” (personal communication, January 14, 2019). Citing information quoted in a PowerPoint If a lecturer included an interesting quote or statistic in their slides that you want to cite, it’s best to find the original source rather than citing the PowerPoint itself. This allows both you and the reader to see the information in context. Only cite second-hand information from a PowerPoint if you’re unable to access the original source. The source of the information will generally be listed in the PowerPoint itself or on a handout. With this, you can locate the original source online or at your university’s library. If the source isn’t stated in the presentation, try asking the lecturer for more information. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a report in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Reports may be published by governments, task groups, or other organizations. To reference a report with an individual author, include the author’s name and initials, the report title (italicized), the report number, the organization that published it, and the URL (if accessed online). Format Author name, Initials. (Year). Report title: Subtitle (Report No. number). Publisher name. URL Reference list Bedford, D. A. D. (2017). Enterprise information architecture: An overview (Report No. WA-RD 896.4). Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/896-4.pdf In-text citation (Bedford, 2017, p. 12) You can easily create accurate APA citations using our free Citation Generator. Generate APA citations Report with multiple authors When a report has multiple authors, up to 20 should be listed in the reference. Wang, Y., Ash, J., Zhuang, Y., Zhibin, L. Zeng, Z., Hajbabaie, A., Hajibabai, L., Tajalli, M. (2019). Understanding opportunities with connected vehicles in the smart cities context (Report No. WA-RD 885.1). https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/885-1.pdf If the report has 21 or more authors, list the first 19, then an ellipsis, then the last listed author: Brian, B., Caulfield, J., Hanes, R., Hunter, C., Hughes, C., Mann, M., Newes, E., Douglas, A., Baldwin, S., Baker, E., Clarke, L., Gabriel, S., Henrion, M., Klemun, M., Marangoni, G., Nemet, G., Newman, A., Paich, M., Popper, S., Way, R., … Zhang, F. (2020). … With in-text citations, list up to two authors. For three or more, list the first followed by “et al.” 2 authors (Bedford & Caulfield, 2012) 3+ authors (Davis et al., 2015) Report with organization as author Sometimes, reports do not list individual authors, only the organization responsible. In these cases, list the organization in the author position. Reference list Europeana Task Force on Metadata Quality. (2015). Report and recommendations from the Task Force on Metadata Quality. Europeana. https://pro.europeana.eu/files/Europeana_Professional/Europeana_Network/metadata-quality-report.pdf In-text citation (Europeana Task Force on Metadata Quality, 2015) This sometimes results in the name of the author and publisher being identical. Omit the second mention of the organization in this case. Reference list Kellogg Company. (2019). 2019 annual report. https://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/NYSE_K_2019.pdf In-text citation (Kellogg Company, 2019) Where to find the report number Many reports are associated with a specific number. If a report has a number, it will typically be listed in the database where you found the report. It will also generally appear on the cover or title page of the report itself. A report number should always be included when available, but if a report doesn’t have one, you can just leave this part out. [FAQ-article]
How to cite a tweet in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. To reference a tweet in APA Style, include the author’s name and username, the date the tweet was posted, the text of the tweet in italics, “Tweet” in square brackets, “Twitter,” and the URL. For tweets longer than 20 words, only include the first 20 in your reference. Format Author name, Initials [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL Reference list Trump, D. J. [@realDonaldTrump]. (2020, September 28). FAKE NEWS! [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1310432401454235650 In-text citation (Trump, 2020) Where to find the information for your citation The information you need to cite a tweet is easy to find on the site. Author names and usernames Write the author name in the usual inverted format, not how it appears on Twitter. If the author is an organization, list the organization in the author position. The username is always included, preceded by “@” and using the same capitalization as on the site: Reference list American Civil Liberties Union [@ACLU]. (2020, October 20). VICTORY: Georgia will have additional dropboxes this cycle in DeKalb County. There are 14 days left until Election Day, and [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/ACLU/status/1318651204277329928 In-text citation (American Civil Liberties Union, 2020) Multimedia content in tweets If the tweet contains any additional content besides words (e.g. images, video, links, polls), this should be stated in a separate set of square brackets before “[Tweet].” For example, the following tweet contains a link to an article: American Psychological Association [@APA]. (2020, September 29). Do you know how to cite a book chapter in your work? Do you know when you should cite an [Thumbnail with link attached]. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APA/status/1310928070283493376 This tweet contains an image: Gladwell, M. [@Gladwell]. (2020, September 20). Setting up my new office. . . There’s no school like old school. [Image attached]. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/Gladwell/status/1307724693718339588 Citing a full Twitter profile If you want to cite an entire Twitter profile rather than an individual tweet, the format is slightly different. You’ll list the year as “n.d.” (no date) and include a retrieval date, since the contents of the profile can change over time. Reference list Pinker, S. [@sapinker]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved September 29, 2020, from https://twitter.com/sapinker In-text citation (Pinker, n.d.) Citing protected tweets or DMs Some content on Twitter is private: tweets from protected accounts (accounts only accessible to approved followers) and DMs (direct messages) from any account. Because the reader won’t be able to access this content, it should be cited as personal communications. Personal communications don’t appear in your reference list. Just refer to them in parentheses in the text, giving the date of the communication. You can specify the format (“protected tweet,” “direct message”) or just write “personal communication.” Jonassen stated that there were no further plans for the project (direct message, July 20, 2020). [FAQ-article]
How to cite a webpage with no author, date, or title in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Webpage citations in APA Style consist of five components: author, publication date, title, website name, and URL. Unfortunately, some of these components are sometimes missing. For instance, there may be no author or publication date. This article explains how to handle different kinds and combinations of missing information. What's missing? Solution Nothing - No author Use title in place of author. No date Use “n.d.” ("no date") in place of date. No title Describe the source in brackets. No author or date Use title in place of author; use "n.d." in place of date. No author or title Use bracketed description in place of author. No date or title Use "n.d." in place of date; describe the source in brackets. No author, date, or title Use bracketed description in place of author; use "n.d." in place of date. Basic webpage citation format You can explore the basic citation format for a webpage using the example generator below. No author Format Page title. (Year, Month Day). Website Name. URL Reference list APA citation guidelines. (2020, October 30). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation (APA Citation Guidelines, 2020) No date Format Last name, Initials. (n.d.). Page title. Website Name. URL Reference list Streefkerk, R. (n.d.). APA citation guidelines. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation (Streefkerk, n.d.) No title Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). [Description of page]. Website Name. URL Reference list Streefkerk, R. (2020, October 30). [Article about APA citations]. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation (Streefkerk, 2020) No author or date Format Page title. (n.d.). Website Name. URL Reference list APA citation guidelines (n.d.). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation (APA Citation Guidelines, n.d.) No author or title Format [Description of page]. (Year, Month Day). Website Name. URL Reference list [Article about APA citations]. (2020, October 30). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation ([Article about APA citations], 2020) No date or title Format Last name, initials. (n.d.). [Description of page]. Website Name. URL Reference list Streefkerk, R. (n.d.). [Article about APA citations]. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation (Streefkerk, n.d.) No author, date, or title Format [Description of page]. (n.d.). Website Name. URL Reference list [Article about APA citations]. (n.d.). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/ In-text citation ([Article about APA citations], n.d.) Don't forget: Our APA Citation Generator can handle all of these exceptions for you automatically! Try the APA Citation Generator
How to cite a website in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date. If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper, magazine, or dictionary), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end. Use the buttons below to explore the format. [citation-widget style="apa" type="website"] Citing an entire website When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site: One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos. For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page. However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry. How to cite online articles Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears. Online articles from newspapers, magazines, and blogs Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL. Give the homepage URL instead of the specific article, as the latter is more likely to change over time. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Publication Name. URL Reference entry Greenhouse, S. (2020, July 30). The coronavirus pandemic has intensified systemic economic racism against black Americans. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-pandemic-has-intensified-systemic-economic-racism-against-black-americans In-text citation (Greenhouse, 2020) The same format is used for blog posts. Just include the blog name where you would usually put the name of the magazine or newspaper. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Blog Name. URL Reference entry Lee, C. (2020, February 19). A tale of two reference formats. APA Style Blog. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/two-reference-formats In-text citation (Lee, 2020) Articles from online-only news sites For articles from news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), italicize the name of the article and not the name of the site. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Site Name. URL Reference entry Rowlatt, J. (2020, October 19). Could cold water hold a clue to a dementia cure? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-54531075 In-text citation (Rowlatt, 2020) Websites with no author When a web page does not list any author, replace the author name with the title of the page or article. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it is in plain text in the reference list, or in italics if it is in italics in the reference list. Note that title case is used for the title here, unlike in the reference list. Shorten the title to the first few words if necessary. Format Page title. (Year, Month Day). Site Name. URL Reference entry The countdown: A prophecy, crowds and a TikTok takedown. (2020, October 19). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2020-54596667 In-text citation (The Countdown, 2019) Note that if the source is attributed to a specific organization or company, you should use this as the author name instead. If this results in the author name being identical to the site name, omit the site name, as in the example below. Format Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Page title. Site Name. URL Reference entry Scribbr. (n.d.). Academic proofreading & editing service. https://www.scribbr.com/proofreading-editing/ In-text citation (Scribbr, n.d.) Websites with no date When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” ("no date") in all citations. If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it. Format Last name, Initials. (n.d.). Page title. Site Name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL Reference entry University of Amsterdam. (n.d.). About the UvA. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html In-text citation (University of Amsterdam, n.d.) How to cite from social media As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound, links) in square brackets. Format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post [Description of multimedia aspects] [Type of post]. Site Name. URL Reference entry American Psychological Association. (2020, October 14). When adjusted for inflation, the largest median salary increase between 2014 and 2018 was for psychology doctorate recipients who expected [Link with thumbnail attached] [Status update]. https://www.facebook.com/AmericanPsychologicalAssociation/posts/10158794205682579 In-text citation (American Psychological Association, 2020) On some social media sites, users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets: Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. This Labor Day, let’s thank all those who've kept our country going this year—nurses, teachers, delivery drivers, food service [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1303015313320050688 In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time: Dorsey, J. [@jack]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 14, 2019, from https://twitter.com/jack [FAQ-article]
How to cite a YouTube video in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. To cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the person or organization that uploaded it, their channel name (if different from their real name), the upload date, the video title (italicized), “Video” in square brackets, the name of the site,  and a link to the video. Note that the same format works for other video sites like Vimeo; just replace “YouTube” with the name of whatever site the video is from. You can also use our free APA citation generator to generate YouTube citations in APA Style. Generate APA citations Where to find citation information for a YouTube video The information you’ll need for your citation is easy to locate on YouTube. It’s located just below the video, as shown in the image below. Authors and channel names The “author” of a YouTube video is not necessarily the person or group who created the video. Instead, APA requires you to list the uploader of the video in the author position. This makes it easier for the reader to locate the video. If the uploader is an individual whose real name is known and is different from their channel name, both should be included. The real name is written in the standard format, while the channel name follows in square brackets and is written exactly as it is on YouTube, retaining any unconventional capitalization or spacing. Format Last name, Initials [Channel name]. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL Reference entry Stevens, M. [Vsauce]. (2017, August 14). The napkin ring problem [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J51ncHP_BrY In-text citation (Stevens, 2017) If the author’s real name is unknown or the uploader is not an individual, the channel name is included alone, with no brackets. University of Oxford. (2019, December 15). Could we run the UK on carbon-free energy? [Video]. https://youtu.be/-EoVRpy4J_U Where the channel name is the same as the author’s real name, it only needs to be written once: Hertzfeldt, D. (2011, April 1). Everything will be OK – by Don Hertzfeldt [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/1IUX0Qy-IDM In-text citations for YouTube videos For an in-text citation of a YouTube video, use whichever name appears first in the full citation, whether that's a real name or a channel name: (Stevens, 2017) (University of Oxford, 2019) When you quote or refer to a specific part of a video, include a timestamp pointing to the relevant moment in the video: (University of Oxford, 2019, 0:29) How to cite a YouTube channel Sometimes you might need to cite a whole channel instead of a single video, as when you’re discussing a channel’s content in general. In this case, don’t include the year the channel was created – just use “n.d.” (no date) as it’s the current content of the channel that’s relevant. Write “YouTube channel” instead of “Video” in the square brackets, and include a retrieval date, since channel content will change over time. Format Last name, Initials [Channel name]. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL Reference entry University of Oxford. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/oxford In-text citation (University of Oxford, n.d.) “Home” refers to the homepage of the channel; if you’re citing something else like the videos or playlists tab, replace accordingly: University of Oxford. (n.d.). Videos [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://​www.youtube.com/​user/oxford/​videos
How to cite an encyclopedia in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. To cite an online encyclopedia entry in APA Style, start with the author of the entry (if listed), followed by the publication year, the entry title, the name of the editor, the encyclopedia name, the edition, the publisher, and the URL. Format Author last name, Initials. (Year). Entry name. In Editor initials. Last name (Ed.), Encyclopedia name (Edition). Publisher. URL Reference entry Wheeler, G. (2020). Bounded rationality. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2020 ed.). Stanford University. https://​plato.stanford.edu/​entries/​bounded-rationality/ In-text citation (Wheeler, 2020) Encyclopedia entries with no author or date Online encyclopedias are often updated on a continuous basis, so a publication date won't necessarily be available. Additionally, they may not list authors or editors. When necessary, list the organization in the author position and write “n.d.” (no date) where the year would usually go, adding a retrieval date later: Animalia (n.d.). Yellow-headed blackbird. In Animalia. Retrieved November 12, 2020, from http://animalia.bio/yellow-headed-blackbird Note that the format is slightly different when you want to cite Wikipedia. Citing a print encyclopedia When citing a print encyclopedia, it will always be a specific edition whose year of publication is stated, so you should include this information. The publisher should not be written again if it is already listed in the author position. Format Publisher Name. (Year). Entry name. In Editor last name, Initials. (Ed.) Encyclopedia name (Edition, p. Page number). Reference entry Cambridge University Press. (2020). Aria. In Marvin, R. M. (Ed.), The Cambridge Verdi encyclopedia (p. 15). In-text citation (Cambridge University Press, 2020) If the individual entry lists an author, include their name at the start and move the publisher name to the end.
How to cite an image in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. An APA image citation includes the creator’s name, the year, the image title and format (e.g. painting, photograph, map), and the location where you accessed or viewed the image. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. or Museum, Location. URL Reference list van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/79802 In-text citation (van Gogh, 1889) When you include an image or photo in your text, as well as citing the source, you must also present it as a figure and include any copyright/permissions information. You can create your citations automatically with Scribbr's free APA citation generator. Generate an APA citation Citing images accessed online For online images, include the name of the site you found it on, and a URL. Link directly to the image where possible, as it may be hard to locate from the other information given. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. URL Reference list Thompson, M. (2020). Canyon wren [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2icfzq4 In-text citation (Thompson, 2020) Missing information It can often be hard to find accurate information about images accessed online. Try looking for alternate sources of an image, checking image sites like Flickr that provide reliable information on their images, or finding a different image in cases where the one you planned to use has no reliable information. However, if you do need to cite an image with no author, date or title listed, there are ways around this. For untitled images, include a description of the image, in square brackets, where the title would usually go. If there is no publication date, add “n.d.” in place of the date, and add the date that you accessed the image. Reference list Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps map of Utrecht city center]. Retrieved January 10, 2020, from https://goo.gl/maps/keKNQZHZTS7ticwb8 In-text citation (Google, n.d.) For images where the creator is unknown, you can use the title or description in the author position. Reference list [Photograph of a violent confrontation during the Hong Kong protests]. (2019). https://twitter.com/xyz11111112 In-text citation ([Confrontation during Hong Kong protests], 2019) Citing images viewed in person If you viewed an image in person rather than online—for example in a museum or gallery, or in another text—the source information is different. For images viewed in a museum or gallery, you include the name and location of the institution where you viewed the image. Format Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Museum, Location. Reference list Goya, F. (1819–1823). Saturn devouring his son [Painting]. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. In-text citation (Goya, 1819–1823) Location information includes the city, state/province (abbreviated), and country, e.g. Sydney, NSW, Australia. Omit the state/province if not applicable. Citations for images sourced from a print publication such as a book, journal, or magazine include information about the print source in which the image originally appeared: American Psychological Association. (2020). Sample conceptual model [Infographic]. In Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 238). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 Including images as figures When you include the image itself in your paper, it should be properly formatted as an APA figure, with a number, a descriptive title, and an entry in your list of figures if you have one. The title of a figure should appear immediately above the image itself, and will vary according to the type of image cited. For example, an artwork is simply the work’s title. A note below the figure may include further details regarding its authorship and medium, copyright/permissions information, additional explanatory notes, or other elements. Note that any figures that you didn't create yourself should appear both in your list of figures (if you have one) and on your reference page. Figures you create yourself only appear in the list of figures.
How to cite an interview in APA StyleThis article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. In APA Style, published interviews are cited in a different format from interviews you conducted yourself. A personal interview you conducted that can’t be accessed by the reader should not be included in the reference list. Instead, it’s cited as a personal communication in the text. To cite a published interview, follow the standard format for the source type it was published in (e.g. book, newspaper). Citing interviews you conducted An interview you conducted yourself is not included in the reference list, because it is not retrievable by your readers. The way you refer to these interviews in the text depends on whether you include a transcript of the interview in an appendix. Quoting your research participants If your research methodology involved conducting formal interviews with participants, transcripts of these interviews are typically included in an appendix. You don’t need citations when quoting your research participants; just mention where the transcripts can be found. One participant, David, stated that he found the experience “very challenging” (full interview transcripts are presented in Appendix 1). This only needs to be mentioned once; don’t refer to the appendix every time you quote from it. Citing personal interviews Personal interviews are those you conducted informally to obtain additional information to support your arguments. They are typically not included in an appendix. As these are not published anywhere, they should be cited as personal communications in the text and omitted from the reference list. Include the interviewee’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date on which the interview was conducted. Via email, one of the researchers involved in the project clarified that it was “still ongoing” (L. Singh, personal communication, April 24, 2020). Citing published interviews To cite a published interview, follow the format for the source type in which it was published. The author is usually the interviewer. The name of the person interviewed is not included in the citation or in the reference list. However, it’s important to make it clear exactly who said what when you quote from an interview conducted by someone else. In the following example, the citation incorrectly implies that the quote is from Davenport: The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). To make it clear that these are the words of the interviewee, not the interviewer, name the speaker directly in the sentence: The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory, as highlighted by NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine in a recent interview with the Washington Post: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20). Citing a newspaper interview To cite an interview published in a newspaper, follow the standard newspaper format, listing the interviewer in the author position. Format Interviewer name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Interview title. Newspaper Name. URL Reference list Dundas, D. (2019, November 8). Zadie Smith on fighting the algorithm: “If you are under 30, and you are able to think for yourself right now, God bless you.” Toronto Star. shorturl.at/eiyzW In-text citation (Dundas, 2019) Citing a podcast interview To cite an interview from a podcast, follow the format for citing a podcast episode, listing the host in the author position. Format Host name, Initials. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. Number). [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast Name. Production Company. URL Reference list O’Brien, J. (Host). (2020, September 24). Margaret Atwood. [Audio podcast episode]. In Full Disclosure with James O’Brien. LBC. https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/margaret-atwood/id1454408831?i=1000492394615 In-text citation (O’Brien, 2020) Citing an interview from YouTube To cite an interview you viewed on YouTube, follow the standard format for citing a YouTube video. Note that the person or organization that uploaded the video, rather than the person conducting the interview, appears in the author position. Format Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL Reference list The New Yorker. (2018, April 4). Malcolm Gladwell explains where his ideas come from [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/zvv8iFupg9M In-text citation (The New Yorker, 2018) [FAQ-article]

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