Example APA Style: Interview
- Did you conduct the interview yourself?
- Are you referring to an interview conducted by someone else?
I conducted the interview myself
Interviews in the appendices
Example: referring to appendix in text
According to interviewee x (Appendix 1), …
For example, interviewee x described how …. (Appendix 1).
Interviews not in the appendices
If the interviews are not included in the appendices, you should refer to the interview as “personal communication.” This indicates that the documents or transcribed interviews are not available to third parties.
Even if you did not create a transcript of the interview, you must reference any information shared that you gained via this method as “personal communication.”
|Literature list||Do not include a reference to an untranscribed interview in the literature list|
I am using an interview conducted by someone else
You may wish to include information from an interview conducted by someone else in your research. For example, an interview with an expert in a certain field or one from an online article.
Interviews in magazines/online articles
In this case, the person who wrote the article (most often the interviewer) is the author. You do not include the name of the person interviewed in the citation or in the literature list.
It may be less clear to the reader exactly who said what when you are referencing an interview conducted by someone else. The following examples show how to make sure the ideas are clearly attributed.
Example: online article with an interview you may wish to quote
Example: quoting with unclear attribution
Here you can see that it is unclear that Bridenstine said this, rather than Davenport. You can solve cases such as this in the following way:
Example: clearly attributing a quote to the original source
The attribution is now clear, as the quote has now been introduced with the name of the person who said it.
|APA format||Author name, initials. (year, day month). Article title. Name of publication (page number, if available). Retrieved from: URL|
|Literature list||Davenport, C (2018, June 5). NASA’s new administrator says he’s talking to companies about taking over operations of the International Space Station. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2018/06/05/nasas-new-administrator-says-hes-talking-to-companies-to-take-over-the-international-space-station|
|In-text citation||NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine confirmed that the United States would like to return their main space operations to US land: “a big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20).|