How to cite an interview in APA Style
In APA Style, published interviews are cited in a different format from interviews you conducted yourself.
Citing interviews you conducted
An interview you conducted yourself is not included in the reference list, because it is not retrievable by your readers.
The way you refer to these interviews in the text depends on whether you include a transcript of the interview in an appendix.
Quoting your research participants
If your research methodology involved conducting formal interviews with participants, transcripts of these interviews are typically included in an appendix. You don’t need citations when quoting your research participants; just mention where the transcripts can be found.
This only needs to be mentioned once; don’t refer to the appendix every time you quote from it. Similar advice applies to surveys.
Citing personal interviews
Personal interviews are those you conducted informally to obtain additional information to support your arguments. They are typically not included in an appendix.
As these are not published anywhere, they should be cited as personal communications in the text and omitted from the reference list.
Include the interviewee’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date on which the interview was conducted.
Citing published interviews
To cite a published interview, follow the format for the source type in which it was published.
The author is usually the interviewer. The name of the person interviewed is not included in the citation or in the reference list.
However, it’s important to make it clear exactly who said what when you quote from an interview conducted by someone else. In the following example, the citation incorrectly implies that the quote is from Davenport:
To make it clear that these are the words of the interviewee, not the interviewer, name the speaker directly in the sentence:
Citing a newspaper interview
To cite an interview published in a newspaper, follow the standard newspaper format, listing the interviewer in the author position.
|Format||Interviewer name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Interview title. Newspaper Name. URL|
|Reference list||Dundas, D. (2019, November 8). Zadie Smith on fighting the algorithm: “If you are under 30, and you are able to think for yourself right now, God bless you.” Toronto Star. shorturl.at/eiyzW|
|In-text citation||(Dundas, 2019)|
Citing a podcast interview
To cite an interview from a podcast, follow the format for citing a podcast episode, listing the host in the author position.
|Format||Host name, Initials. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. Number). [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast Name. Production Company. URL|
|Reference list||O’Brien, J. (Host). (2020, September 24). Margaret Atwood. [Audio podcast episode]. In Full Disclosure with James O’Brien. LBC. https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/margaret-atwood/id1454408831?i=1000492394615|
|In-text citation||(O’Brien, 2020)|
Citing an interview from YouTube
To cite an interview you viewed on YouTube, follow the standard format for citing a YouTube video. Note that the person or organization that uploaded the video, rather than the person conducting the interview, appears in the author position.
|Format||Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL|
|Reference list||The New Yorker. (2018, April 4). Malcolm Gladwell explains where his ideas come from [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/zvv8iFupg9M|
|In-text citation||(The New Yorker, 2018)|
Frequently asked questions about APA Style citations
- Should interviews be included in an APA reference list?
- What types of source are cited as a personal communication in APA Style?
In APA Style, all sources that are not retrievable for the reader are cited as personal communications. In other words, if your source is private or inaccessible to the audience of your paper, it’s a personal communication.
Common examples include conversations, emails, messages, letters, and unrecorded interviews or performances.