APA Manual 7th edition: The most notable changes

APA Manual 7th edition coverIn October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.

In that time a lot of things have changed. Citing online material has become more common, the use of inclusive and bias-free language is increasingly important, and the technology used by researchers and students has changed.

The 7th edition addresses these changes by providing better and more extensive guidelines. This article outlines the biggest changes that you should know about.

References and in-text citations in APA Style

When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing online sources easier and clearer.

In total, 114 examples are provided, ranging from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and social media. For each reference category, an easy template is provided to help you understand and apply the citation guidelines. The biggest changes in the 7th edition are:

  1. The publisher location is no longer included in the reference.
    • Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
    • Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.
  2. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”.
    • (Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)
    • (Taylor et al., 2018)
  3. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.
    • Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lee, L. H. (2018).
    • Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., Nelson, T. P. (2018).
  4. DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary.

    • doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449
    • https://doi.org/10.1080/​02626667.2018.1560449
  5. URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.
    • Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/​news/business-50419127
    • Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/​news/business-50419127
  6. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included.
    • Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites [Kindle version]. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2
    • Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellitesSpringer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2
  7. Clear guidelines are provided for including contributors other than authors and editors. For example, when citing a podcast episode, the host of the episode should be included; for a TV series episode, the writer and director of that episode are cited.
  8. Dozens of examples are included for online source types such as podcast episodes, social media posts, and YouTube videos. The use of emojis and hashtags is also explained.

Inclusive and bias-free language

Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains a separate chapter on this topic.

The guidelines provided by APA help authors reduce bias around topics such as gender, age, disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels and describing individuals at the appropriate level of specificity. Some examples include:

  1. The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.
    • A researcher’s career depends on how often he or she is cited.
    • A researcher’s career depends on how often they are cited.
  2. Instead of using adjectives as nouns to label groups of people, descriptive phrases are preferred.
    • The poor
    • People living in poverty
  3. Instead of broad categories, you should use exact age ranges that are more relevant and specific.
    • People over 65 years old
    • People in the age range of 65 to 75 years old

APA Paper format

In the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and student papers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:

  1. Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11.
  2. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It now contains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title.
    • Running head: THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE ON THE INTERNET
    • THE EFFECT OF GOOGLE ON THE INTERNET
  3. The running head is omitted in student papers (unless your instructor tells you otherwise).
  4. Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability.

Mechanics of style

In terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and better explained guidelines, there are two notable changes:

  1. Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence.
  2. Use double quotation marks instead of italics to refer to linguistic examples.
    • APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun they
    • APA endorses the use of the singular pronoun “they”

APA 7th edition citation generator

With Scribbr’s free citation generator you can easily cite your sources according to the new 7th edition guidelines. It’s accurate, fast, and easy to use. Give it a try!
Scribbr APA Citation Generator

Free lecture slides

Are you a teacher or professor who would like to educate your students about the APA 7th edition changes? Great! You can download our free lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Open Google SlidesDownload PowerPoint

Buying the new 7th edition APA Manual

Buy the APA Manual 7th edition today to keep up with the latest changes.Buy Now

Frequently Asked Questions

When will people start using the 7th edition APA Manual?

The American Psychological Association anticipates that most people will start using the 7th edition in the spring of 2020 or thereafter.

It’s best to ask your supervisor or check the website of the journal you want to publish in to see which APA guidelines you should follow.

Where can I buy or download the APA Manual 7th edition?

The APA Manual 7th edition can be purchased at Amazon as a hardcover, paperback or spiral-bound version. You can also buy an ebook version at RedShelf.

What is the most current edition of the APA manual?

The 7th edition APA Manual, published in October 2019, is the most current edition. However, the 6th edition, published in 2009, is still used by many universities and journals.

Is this article helpful?
Raimo Streefkerk

Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since 2017 and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators.

230 comments

Mojgan
June 10, 2020 at 5:36 PM

When I report secondary citations inside the text, should I mention the year for the original source? or just the year of the source I read?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
June 11, 2020 at 12:15 PM

Hi Mojgan,

You should include the year of the original source as well. For example: (Smith, 2019, as cited in Jones, 2020).

Reply

Ogundele Michael ola
May 19, 2020 at 1:37 PM

What about the Journals without DOI
THANKS

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
May 19, 2020 at 7:45 PM

Hi,

For online journal articles with no DOI, you can use a URL instead. However, make sure that it will be accessible to your reader (for example, don't use a URL that requires a database login). Many databases provide a stable URL for journal articles.

Reply

Cristina
May 5, 2020 at 12:41 PM

Hello,

If I have this (Barkley, 1997, Harms, Martin i Wallace, 2010, Marsh i Blair, 2008, citat a Graziano i Garcia, 2016)...

I have to put (Barkley, 1997, Harms, et al., 2010, Marsh i Blair, 2008, citat a Graziano i Garcia, 2016)?

Thanks,
Cristina

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
May 6, 2020 at 8:54 PM

Hi Cristina,

Yes, you're correct about the changes to the number of authors included in a citation. However, note that there is no comma before "et al.", and when you cite multiple different sources in one place, you should separate them with semicolons, like this: (Barkley, 1997; Harms et al., 2010; Marsh & Blair, 2008 cited in Graziano & Garcia, 2016).

Reply

Andrei
May 7, 2020 at 1:31 AM

Hi Shona,

We have a guide for APA 7th edition with such example:
In-text citation: (Pilar et al. 2019)

Is this correct? Or I should cite with comma?:
In-text citation: (Pilar et al., 2019)

Thank you

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
May 8, 2020 at 6:55 PM

Hi Andrei,

You're right that there should be a comma between the author name and the year in an APA in-text citation.

Reply

Joanne Davie
May 1, 2020 at 3:39 AM

If the heading of a section is at the bottom of a page do I leave it there, or move it to the top of the next page?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
May 6, 2020 at 8:38 PM

Hi Joanne,

According to APA style, you shouldn't add any blank lines above or below your headings, so you should leave it at the bottom of the page. See this blog for further information on headings. Hope that helps!

Reply

Barbara Parsons
April 29, 2020 at 9:35 PM

None of the examples in the video use a hanging indent. Have you removed it from the format, or is this an error in the video?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
May 6, 2020 at 3:00 PM

Hi Barbara,

You should still use a hanging indent when formatting your reference list. Since the examples in the video aimed to show the content of source citations rather than the format of the reference page, we didn't apply the hanging indent here. Apologies for any confusion!

Reply

Iliana
April 18, 2020 at 7:46 AM

Please help me solving a big doubt. If I'm using the APA Style rules, can I use British English spelling and punctuation? Or how should I proceed? I tried to mix British English spelling and American-style punctuation in accordance with APA style, but it's just so many rules.

Thank you in advance,
Ili

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
April 24, 2020 at 7:44 PM

Hi Iliana,

It's best to check with your instructor or the journal you're submitting to on this point. British English tends to be somewhat more flexible, so it may be acceptable to use American-style punctuation along with British spellings. For an overview of the differences, you can check our articles about US vs UK English.

Reply

naqeeba
April 17, 2020 at 6:34 PM

what if both authors last name is name.. what do we have to write in-text citation
Mental Health Stigma
3rd March 2015 · Peter Haddad and Isabelle Haddad
https://www.bap.org.uk/articles/mental-health-stigma/

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
April 24, 2020 at 7:40 PM

Hi Naqeeba,

In this case you simply cite the two authors as usual: (Haddad & Haddad, 2015).

Hope that helps!

Reply

HAFIJUL SHAIKH
April 1, 2020 at 11:19 AM

How to write 'reviewed literature' and what aspects need to be reviewed according to APA 7th edition

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
April 2, 2020 at 12:55 PM

Hi Hafijul,

You can learn more about reviewing literature in our guide to writing a literature review. You should follow general APA guidelines for citation and formatting when reviewing literature.

Reply

Sheri D Grell
March 28, 2020 at 5:03 PM

Does APA 7th edition prefer the writer use the form:

The author

or

I

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
April 2, 2020 at 12:57 PM

Hi Sheri,

The APA 7th edition recommends using first person pronouns ("I") when referring to your own actions and reflections. This is because writing in the third person ("the author") can create ambiguity in your writing.

Reply

Lee Joseph
May 5, 2020 at 10:51 PM

Hi Shona, but doesn't APA style writing prefer that you do not use "I"?
Also, for this citation:

Medicare.gov. (2016). Medicare hospital comparison. In: Medicare.Gov: The Official U.S. Government Site For Medicare. [Internet]. https://www.medicare.gov/hospitalcompare/compare.html#cmprTab=0&cmprID=100128%2C100243&cmprDist=1.1%2C13.0&dist=25&loc=TAMPA%2C%20FL&lat=27.950575&lng=-82.4571776

Would I remove "[Internet]"- in regards to #6 change?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
May 6, 2020 at 8:50 PM

Hi Lee,

APA style recommends the use of "I" when referring to your own actions and reflections. See this blog for more details on first-person pronouns.

In the 7th edition format, the reference for a government web page should start with the name of the agency responsible for the website, and the page title should be included in italics:

U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2016). Medicare hospital comparison. https://www.medicare.gov/hospitalcompare/compare.html#cmprTab=0&cmprID=100128%2C100243&cmprDist=1.1%2C13.0&dist=25&loc=TAMPA%2C%20FL&lat=27.950575&lng=-82.4571776

Hope that helps!

Reply

Umme Habiba Jasmine
March 13, 2020 at 2:58 AM

Hi, thanks a lot for the helpful presentation slides. I think slide # 18 (No more running head) needs to be corrected in the pictures. The running head will be used but the word "Running Head" will be omitted, not it?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
March 13, 2020 at 7:25 PM

Hi Umme,

Unlike the 6th edition, the 7th edition provides extra format guidelines specific to student papers. According to these new guidelines, student papers don't require a running head at all (unless the instructor tells you to include one).

If you're a researcher who is preparing a manuscript for publication, the running head should still be included (but indeed, the words "running head" are no longer included on the title page).

Hope that helps, and we're glad to hear you found the slides useful!

Reply

Frank Aziedorme
February 28, 2020 at 4:58 PM

It makes referencing very simple . Good work done. Congratulations.

Reply

Katherine W.
March 9, 2020 at 8:01 PM

I agree! Great work in describing changes by providing examples.

Reply

P. Thomas
February 21, 2020 at 9:51 PM

I read somewhere, in APA manual 6th edition that a dot /period is NOT need if the last letter in acronym is the last letter of the full form; for example, Mr, Dr, etc.
But a dot/period is REQUIRED when words such as Professor is abbreviated as Prof. because f is not the last letter of the full form Professor.
Can any help if my memory of APA 6 is correct as above. If so, is it still maintained in the new 7th edition?
Thanks in advance

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
February 25, 2020 at 11:02 AM

Hi,

Neither edition of the APA manual provides guidelines on punctuating title abbreviations. In general, the rule you mentioned tends to be applied in UK English, while US English tends to use a period after all title abbreviations.

Reply

marlon delgadillo
February 19, 2020 at 6:37 PM

Thank you to APA for this never-ending changing of format that continues making the lives of the students a miserable hell

Reply

ct
February 21, 2020 at 5:33 PM

YESSSSSSSSS!!! :-/

Reply

Another User
February 22, 2020 at 12:54 AM

I would rather a miserable hell than the misery of learning and using this format!

Reply

Procrastinator
March 4, 2020 at 10:35 PM

Likes this comment

Reply

Veronica
February 14, 2020 at 10:29 PM

Thanks for this great summary of changes.

Am I correct to assume that full journal titles are still needed both if citing a journal in the text (such as in a figure) and also in the reference / bibliography section?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
February 25, 2020 at 11:40 AM

Hi Veronica,

Yes, you're correct that you should always write out full journal titles.

Reply

User
February 7, 2020 at 4:31 PM

I have to say I find the new in-text citation rule to be a pity. My very first (co-authored) publication is finally in press and consists of four authors — I am second and it will not be visible… Oh well.

Reply

Kathy Murphy
February 29, 2020 at 3:26 PM

I had that happen too! I co-authored an article I was able to cite in my dissertation-so excited-until I was in the .....

Reply

azlida
February 7, 2020 at 9:02 AM

Today, I'm using scribbr to learn and do my APA presentation, tq scribbr

Reply

I. Nasir Aujara.
February 6, 2020 at 6:52 PM

Splendid format.

Reply

Abubakar Mohammed Akabe
February 6, 2020 at 6:02 PM

it is a great development to the researchers. keep it up APA.

Reply

Prof. Afkinich Taoufik Alkah
March 2, 2020 at 7:28 PM

Correct me if I am wrong but didn't the 6th drop having the date of publication between parentheses and used periods before and after the date?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
March 3, 2020 at 12:37 PM

Hi,

In both the 6th and 7th edition guidelines for APA reference list entries, the publication date goes in parentheses after the author's name, followed by a period.

You might be thinking of a different citation style, such as MLA or Chicago, neither of which use parentheses around the date in a full reference.

Hope that helps!

Reply

Dr Joseph Ogwuche
February 5, 2020 at 8:11 PM

This is a welcome development. A beautiful work done by Apa. I just want to suggest that it should be made available on line for people to get used to.

Reply

Carolyn
February 13, 2020 at 3:21 PM

Can I just clarify this is still correct.
Intext
Brown (2019) suggest ...
Or
At the end ofa sentence ......(Mims 2015).

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
February 14, 2020 at 4:39 PM

Hi Carolyn,

Yes, the placement of in-text citations has not changed. However, note that when you include the author and date in parentheses, they should be separated by a comma: (Mims, 2015).

Hope that helps!

Reply

Shannon
April 2, 2020 at 5:01 AM

Carolyn, the author's name would not be included in the parenthesis in your example if the sentence begins with "Brown (2018) suggests that..." because the author's name begins the sentence: Brown suggests that...

Thanks,
Shannon

Reply

Ekaette
February 4, 2020 at 9:23 PM

Thanks for this update. Paragraphing is not reflected here. Please does 7th edition of APA maintains indentation or block style and how many lines of write up before next paragraph. Thanks.

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
February 13, 2020 at 11:12 AM

Hi Ekaette,

Yes, the new edition maintains standard paragraph indentation of 0.5 inches. There is no standard number of lines in a paragraph; you should aim to keep each paragraph focused on one key idea, and start a new paragraph when you move on to discuss something new. You can read more in our guide to paragraph structure.

Hope that helps!

Reply

Ali yahaya ukashatu(garko)
February 3, 2020 at 10:46 PM

Well done! a great contribution to the world of knowledge.

Reply

Chidi C. Ifeachor
February 3, 2020 at 9:53 PM

This edition is a job well done. It's simpler and more dynamic. Kudos to APA.

Reply

Vernon Every
February 3, 2020 at 4:57 PM

As regards "Inclusive and bias-free language - The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.": I would like to point out that the sound of the noun form in the singular when followed by a, let's be honest, plural pronoun just doesn't sound right. My suggestion would be to set the noun in the plural form rather and then the plural pronoun will be fully in agreement.

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
February 4, 2020 at 10:37 AM

Hi Vernon,

Pluralizing the subject is certainly also an option, especially in cases where the singular "they" might result in an unclear sentence. But singular "they" does have a long history of informal use, and in most cases there's no real reason to avoid it; as it's now considered standard usage in APA style, you can expect to see it more and more often in formal writing. You can read more about APA's position on this on the APA style blog.

Reply

Dr Samuel Olu Adeyoyin
February 3, 2020 at 9:31 AM

This edition is highly instructional. The Library and Information professionals should help to educate their faculties, researchers and students on the use of the new edition. Kudos to APA .

Reply

Obidinma Obidinma
February 3, 2020 at 11:45 AM

This is good. I love the elimination of 'Location' from the reference and other changes.

Reply

Yahya Saleh Ibrahim Ph.D
February 3, 2020 at 9:30 AM

It's fantastic and easy to comprehend

Reply

Elizabeth Wogu
February 3, 2020 at 2:03 AM

This is a good work. Thank you

Reply

Nkwocha Edmund
February 2, 2020 at 12:18 PM

Great improvement. Need time to adapt.

Reply

Omachoko Samuel Musa
February 2, 2020 at 8:33 AM

This is great. It's becoming simpler. Thanks to APA.

Reply

Bashir Kawu
February 1, 2020 at 10:31 PM

This is a welcome development. Keep it up APA.

Reply

Dantata
February 1, 2020 at 7:37 PM

APA team has done a great job, dynamism in research output should always be commended.

Reply

Okwor Innocent Ugwu
February 3, 2020 at 7:53 PM

Permitting the use of "et al" in first- time in- text citation simplifies the work of student researchers

Reply

Adedayo Muyiwa
February 1, 2020 at 6:59 PM

APA has done a good job in this 7th edition. Keep up the good work.
Please, make it available for online download.

Reply

Professor Eric Amadi C
February 1, 2020 at 1:13 PM

Thank you and timely.

Reply

Dr Faith Okoye
February 1, 2020 at 11:13 AM

A welcome development. Thanks to APA team.

Reply

dominic agyapong
January 25, 2020 at 5:41 AM

Awesome explanation. Thanks.

Reply

David wanjala
January 22, 2020 at 9:16 PM

WHAT ABOUT LABELING TABLES AND FIGURES? Do we still put down astable 3.1, 3.2?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
January 28, 2020 at 6:46 PM

Hi David,

The APA manual advises students to number captions in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. So instead of Table 3.1 and 3.2, you would simply write Table 3 and Table 4.

However, some universities might require chapter numbers to be included in the caption; in this case you can label them as Table 1.1, 2.1, etc, according to the chapter number. Your university's format requirements always take precedence over the APA guidelines.

Hope that helps!

Reply

Akifa
December 19, 2019 at 6:43 AM

Please tell me about similarities of APA edition 6 and edition 7

Reply

Samuel Onyeabor
December 18, 2019 at 11:30 AM

Thanks APA, for this new update!

Reply

Ovaga Obinna
December 14, 2019 at 8:07 AM

Great improvement on the last edition. Flexible and precise and Indeed one of the best reference style for academic publications

Reply

Susan Schultz
December 7, 2019 at 3:45 PM

This is a very helpful article that highlights the changes. I am wondering about point 16, one space after periods at the end of a sentence. Is this a change from 6? Thanks for clarifying the differences.

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
December 9, 2019 at 10:49 AM

Hi Susan,

Yes, the previous edition recommended (but did not strictly require) two spaces after a period in student papers and draft manuscripts. In the 7th edition, one space is recommended in all cases.

Hope this helps!

Reply

Ernest
December 26, 2019 at 10:22 AM

I was wondering exactly the same! Interesting, I had no idea about the use of two spaces.

Reply

Dennis E.
December 25, 2019 at 12:26 AM

One space after a period... welcome to the 20th century, APA!

Reply

Sara E LePine
December 3, 2019 at 10:59 PM

This is great! I also heard the new edition requires exact p-values to be reported to 3 decimal places - is this correct?

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
December 5, 2019 at 5:33 PM

Hi Sara,

Yes, you should report exact p-values to three decimal places.

Reply

Dr.A.A . OKEDIJI
February 10, 2020 at 12:43 PM

It was found educative and informative. It is better we develop our own too in Africa if not in Nigeria

Reply

María
November 25, 2019 at 7:24 PM

It was a very useful article.
But I have some doubts still concerning how to cite tweets, and thesis.
Could anybody to help me?

Thanks! =)

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
November 26, 2019 at 11:17 AM

Hi María,

You can find the 7th edition guidelines on citing tweets and other social media in our guide to APA website citations. Hope this helps!

Reply

Maria
November 26, 2019 at 9:10 PM

Thank you very much Shona. It was very useful =)

I have another couple of doubts that maybe you can answer me.
I am not sure if I have to put "p." or ":" to indicate the number page in textual citation in text.
I am not sure if I have to remove the publication place in Book references.

Thanks million.

Reply

Shona McCombes
Shona McCombes (Scribbr-team)
November 29, 2019 at 12:24 PM

In an APA in-text citation, you write "p." before a page number and "pp." before a page range.

If you are following the 7th edition guidelines, the publication place is no longer included in a book reference.

Hope this has answered all your questions!

Reply

Dr. T.E. Akinruwa
November 24, 2019 at 7:11 PM

Kudos to Apa team. 7th edition is highly commendable. Change is inevitable. Weldone.
Please make it available online for downloading.

Reply

Buba Umar yazah
November 17, 2019 at 6:36 PM

Really addresses the mystique sorrounding the sensitive areas.. particularly the terminologies.. keep it up

Reply

JIDE ALEBIOSU
November 17, 2019 at 3:00 PM

An improvement on the 6th edition. More font options and gender-neutral expressions. Why was the location of publication omitted?

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Jamilu Aliyu
November 17, 2019 at 9:45 AM

A commendable work.

Reply

arowolo j gbemiga
November 16, 2019 at 12:33 PM

This is wow, precise, simple and flexible, academics should adopt this 7th edition uniforly by 2020 onward, kudos to the authorithy of APA for this innovations

Reply

arowolo j gbemiga
November 16, 2019 at 12:28 PM

An update of this kind is required periodically, l suggest that academic world should comply uniformly with the use of any edition for a range of 5 to 10 years before adopting any latest, kudos to the authorithy of APA for the innovations in this 7th edition, hope to reflect in works from 2020 onward

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Ikechukwu J. Onyendi
November 7, 2019 at 6:59 AM

A good one, clearly stated.

Reply

It's a very good one, more details and explanation . Thanks for APA.
November 4, 2019 at 7:37 PM

Good & excellent

Reply

Edoh TORGAH.
November 4, 2019 at 5:43 PM

Comes in handy for the graduate research methods students!

Reply

Aderemi Aderogba
November 4, 2019 at 5:27 PM

This is quite commendable and it is a well taken piece. Good job. Appreciate your efforts in working hard to improve the frontiers of research work.

Reply

Mary Aneke
December 11, 2019 at 1:17 PM

Pls how can I cite and reference media (radio, tv program etc), focused group discussion, power point slides.

Reply

Binta Musa
November 2, 2019 at 9:06 PM

Good development, thanks

Reply

Kabiru Muhammad
November 1, 2019 at 1:12 AM

APA,the best referencing and in text citation I like because it is always dynamically addressing the the current knowledge explosion and researches on how to best acknowledged the sources we use in writing academic papers/articles!

Reply

Dr Justina Okoli
October 29, 2019 at 9:34 PM

APA, a very articulated learning tip and always dynamic.

Reply

John Maliro
October 29, 2019 at 6:40 AM

Job well done. I'm impressed. Thank you APA!!!!

Reply

Dr Abila james
October 28, 2019 at 5:42 PM

APA style is quite progressive. I have found appropriate, and it has come part of my writing style

Reply

Dr Cecilia Sang
October 29, 2019 at 4:11 PM

Great development on the spa guidelines. Very encouraging

Reply

Dr. Abubakar Olaseni
October 28, 2019 at 12:50 PM

APA is always taking the research world into a world unknown. Good job!

Reply

Ayoola Olusegun Onasote
October 28, 2019 at 5:32 AM

The APA 7th edition is a welcome development to the world academia. Very commendable research and excellent performance.

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chepkoech Valentine
October 28, 2019 at 4:55 AM

Thank you so much APA. It is helpful.

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Abdulkareem Abdulazeez
October 27, 2019 at 5:03 PM

It is a job well done. Thanks for keeping us updated as this would help researchers improve on their research activities.

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SHIYANBADE Bolanle Waliu
October 27, 2019 at 4:06 PM

Wonderful and innovative..... Great job.

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Prof. F. O. Orabueze
October 27, 2019 at 1:51 PM

Changes are part of human growth and development. This one is NOT an exception.

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Emelia Ohene Afriyie
October 25, 2019 at 1:27 PM

Thanks for sharing. We will apply it when it is time .

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Aromolaran, Adeyemi
October 24, 2019 at 8:46 AM

This is an encouraging development to tolerate global changes in writing style. Thumb up for APA

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Mufutau Ayinla Abdulyakeen
October 24, 2019 at 5:48 PM

APA7 is a very good innovation that is contributing, greatly, to the development to the academia.
Keep it up.
Best regards.

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Shafaatu Umar
October 24, 2019 at 2:44 AM

This is great, thanks to APA. More details on PDF.

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Estino Uzor
October 24, 2019 at 12:07 AM

Incredible research

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Adus Bennett Samuel
October 23, 2019 at 8:10 PM

I really appreciate it. It's easier than the 6th edition

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Boma Luckyn
October 22, 2019 at 1:24 PM

Very interesting and commendable. Good work !!!

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Dr Maurice Aniebo
October 22, 2019 at 12:48 AM

APA 7th end. is timely and thoughtful. It shines a bright light on very crucial research issues. For the academics, it is an essential guide.

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Elechi, Stella O.
October 21, 2019 at 12:44 PM

Timely and informative. Thanks to APA for continuously contributing to knowledge

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Sylvester D. Polit
October 21, 2019 at 12:37 PM

This is very helpful especially for student researchers.

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Prof. Ashutosh Biswal
October 21, 2019 at 10:55 AM

It is a very good news from APA. Waiting to see the 7th edition.

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Abdul M Sarki
October 21, 2019 at 10:14 AM

This update is a very good job especially it's giving more multiple options for different fonts styles.

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Othman B M
October 21, 2019 at 10:07 AM

That's good

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Dr.B.Gopal singh
October 21, 2019 at 2:51 AM

New changes are welcome in the light of new new sources of information , it is is hastle free.

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Sani A. Garba
October 20, 2019 at 11:34 PM

Sincerely this information is timely and will equally make it more easier for researchers! Thanks & God bless..

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Anaweokhai AIJ
October 20, 2019 at 10:35 PM

This is coming at a really great time.

I know the younger generation of researchers would really take advantage of this remarkable opportunity.

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Hafsat Muhammad Hassan
October 20, 2019 at 8:22 PM

Welcome development, thanks for improve our knowledge

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Daspan Sam-Sallau
October 20, 2019 at 7:10 PM

This is an innovative drlepment for researchers, its quite timely and awesome.

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Abubakar Yahaya Kagarko
October 20, 2019 at 6:47 PM

That's Very Nice!

We're expecting more as technology improves.

Keep it up APA.

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Kagarko
October 20, 2019 at 6:43 PM

That's great!

We're are expecting more changes as technology improves.

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Dr Sr.LissyJose
October 20, 2019 at 5:14 PM

Great work indeed.
Thanks to APA

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Sobola, Isaac
October 20, 2019 at 4:18 PM

Wahoo, what a wonderful job. Kudos to the dynamic world of research

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Dr. Ayodele M. O
October 20, 2019 at 1:54 PM

This is a good development. Kudos to the initiators.

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Abdulkarim Umar Muhammad
October 20, 2019 at 10:52 AM

This is a great contribution to the Academia in particular, and to the world in general. Once again thanks for this significant contribution to the mankind.

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Jamiu Fatai Owolabi
October 20, 2019 at 10:31 AM

It is a welcome development and people will adapt to it as soon as possible.

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Alh Sanusi Mato
October 20, 2019 at 8:48 AM

Indeed, this is a must read article, guide and informative resource. Its flexible and timely.... Thanks

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Alh Sanusi Mato
October 20, 2019 at 8:46 AM

Indeed, this is a must read article, guide and informative resource. Its flexible and timely....

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Nura Aliyu jega original
February 7, 2020 at 10:12 AM

Very interested

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Mohammed Dahiru Zakari
October 20, 2019 at 7:34 AM

Thanks for contributing to the knowledge

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Ben Woke
October 20, 2019 at 4:27 AM

Wonderful innovation. Thanks APA.

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Marham Jupri Hadi
October 20, 2019 at 2:27 AM

Thanks very much. It is very imformative and helps a lot. You should provide more detail information on PDF format accessible to everyone

(Greeting from Beruga' Alam Institute & University of Nahdlatul Wathan Mataram, Indonesia)

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Dr Clement O Omagbemi
October 19, 2019 at 10:15 PM

A good job. Helpful.

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Bashir Adamu Sulaiman
October 19, 2019 at 10:08 PM

Well done for the Job

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Adeniyi Aremu
October 19, 2019 at 9:29 PM

A good step in the right direction. APA refreecing style is indeed Writers and Researchers Companion in this Technological age which begs for an App.

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SANI shuaibu Rogo
October 19, 2019 at 9:14 PM

Timely and needful to all schoolars.

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SANI shuaibu Rogo
October 19, 2019 at 9:12 PM

Change is inaavitable..

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Dr. Ainoko Samson
October 19, 2019 at 7:52 PM

This is quite commendable. APA, keep it up as dynamism is the beauty of research.

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Ogbo Ann
October 19, 2019 at 7:25 PM

They dynamic nature of research has been strengthened with this value innovation.

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Umar Shuaibu
March 3, 2020 at 1:06 PM

This is commendable

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Dr Uchenna Gerald Eze
October 19, 2019 at 7:07 PM

very interesting. The format should be made available as quick as possible

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Katlong Simon
October 19, 2019 at 7:05 PM

This is quite remarkable and apt... It is a good step in the right direction for an improved research work

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Dr Shetima Abdullahi
October 19, 2019 at 6:45 PM

This is a wellcom development hope to improve END NOTE and Microsoft word reference. update thanks for APA format

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Ibrahim Dalatu Marte
October 19, 2019 at 5:54 PM

This is a product of dynamic nature of knowledge. Kudos to APA team.

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Dr Mong Emeka
October 19, 2019 at 5:41 PM

It's lovely that this is getting to us at this time. Thanks.

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Emina w.u
October 19, 2019 at 4:30 PM

Comment
This is quite commendable,this issue of 6th and 7th came up during my ph.D.defense in 2016 and it became am issue. I hope all those professors can update themselves now and move with the trend of events.

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Ofcoz, is a very good development ! After a good decade for d existence of d 6th edition of d APA, now d new edition (7th) has introduced. Thank u very much d APA Management for keeping us updated.
October 19, 2019 at 3:04 PM

I really appreciate d efforts of d APA Management towards making researchers updated .

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Dr.E.I.Itanyi.
October 19, 2019 at 2:49 PM

This is apt. I thank the APA team so much for this information and update. More grease to your elbows.
Chief Itanyi.
UNN.

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Rabiatu Muhammad ahmad
October 19, 2019 at 1:58 PM

Thanks for the update.please make the PDF format available to be more accessible and useful.

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Tine Vaungwa
October 19, 2019 at 1:35 PM

Very good work by APA. It will surely improve the way citations are handled in research works, as it's always done.

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Chibuike Ndubuisi Kenneth
October 19, 2019 at 1:06 PM

Your efforts are highly appreciated.

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Abdulazeez Abdulmumin
October 19, 2019 at 12:38 PM

This is advancement of knowledge by APA team. you guys are doing great job.

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Dr. Abba Ya'u
October 19, 2019 at 11:48 AM

What a shared information and a good work of the APA team...How should I get the PDF copy of this seventh edition?

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Dr. Priscilla Bempah Botwe
October 19, 2019 at 11:46 AM

Knowledge is power! it's always good to improve upon our existing knowledge to bring about new things.

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Malextive Abeeikyaa
October 19, 2019 at 11:39 AM

Thanks immeasurably for the input in order to move us towards the dynamic and new social changes in sciences and behaviour well as community inclusion in this new development.

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Kabiru Muhammad El-Yakub
October 19, 2019 at 11:33 AM

This is a welcome development. Kudos to APA team

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Niyi Yusuff
October 19, 2019 at 11:26 AM

A good wake up knowledge. Cheers

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Lizzy Anierobi
October 19, 2019 at 10:35 AM

This is apt and a welcome development. Thanks to APA team

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Emma Nwajiobi
October 19, 2019 at 10:32 AM

Thanks for the update information

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Kenneth Nwinkoh
October 19, 2019 at 10:07 AM

This development is most welcome in academic Research world.

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Dr Ahmad Muhammad Gumel
October 19, 2019 at 9:49 AM

Certainly, this is a welcome development. We have been expecting this development for quite a long time

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Sani Musa Shehu
October 19, 2019 at 9:44 AM

This is a very good development, keep it up.

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Dr Popoola
October 19, 2019 at 9:40 AM

This is unique and timely . Students , researchers and academia should borrow leaves from this magnificent template

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Ibrahim Suleiman
October 19, 2019 at 9:04 AM

This milestone achievement is timely ;it would assist immensely in terms of research and Academic presentation.

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Umar Shuaibu Bajoga
October 19, 2019 at 9:02 AM

Wonderful, this is very impressive APA Sky is your limit

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Chris
October 19, 2019 at 7:38 AM

Please can you develop a template for APA 7 that can be adapted and included to Endnote Reference Manager?

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Charles Alajemba
October 19, 2019 at 7:36 AM

Dynamic world needs a prompt and dynamic follow up. The change is timely.

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Dr. Charles Okeke
October 19, 2019 at 1:03 AM

Kudos! When shall it be made available for students and researchers to download?

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Ibrahim Muhammad Sani Mainagge
October 19, 2019 at 12:32 AM

A great, relevant and timely information APA keep it up.

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Abdullah Ibrahim
October 18, 2019 at 11:58 PM

This is timely and commendable. Keep it up APA.

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Auwalu A.Labaran
October 18, 2019 at 11:57 PM

A fruitful development.

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Badamasi Ja'afaru
October 18, 2019 at 11:56 PM

Good development though long over due, please kept it up APA for making us abreast of new development.

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Dr. Muhammad Salihu Zubair
October 18, 2019 at 11:50 PM

It is a good development and contribution to librarianship. Hope it will be available at a reasonable price soon.
Thank you

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Ernest kansangabata
October 18, 2019 at 11:43 PM

Very good and timely

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Umar I. Aliyu
October 18, 2019 at 11:32 PM

This is a welcome development in this age of technology.

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Ajala Alimi
October 18, 2019 at 11:32 PM

It has indeed added to the frontier of knowledge with the fresh updates.

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Dr. A.A.OKEDIJI October 18, 2019
October 18, 2019 at 10:38 PM

This is an informative, educative and innovative transformations for the research scholars

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Anselm I.O.
October 18, 2019 at 10:20 PM

It is a nice one. Although, wish it can come out in PDF with a lucid examples so that one can download it. Thanks.

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Gideon Abugri
October 18, 2019 at 10:00 PM

Well noted

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Adenike Oladipo
October 18, 2019 at 9:57 PM

Great work APA. It has been a culture of continuous improvement . Keep it up . Thanks Raimo for sharing.

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Dr. Joseph N. Jatbong
October 18, 2019 at 9:34 PM

Changes are the inevitable constants. Well done APA for waking up to the challenge and taking the lead in a technologically changing world. Congratulations.

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Dr. I. J. Chikezie
October 18, 2019 at 8:23 PM

Thank you so much APA for working so hard.
Does this imply that we continue with 6th edition until 2020?

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Barakatu Abdullahi
October 18, 2019 at 8:17 PM

Good job

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Bura Muhammad Ilallah
October 18, 2019 at 7:26 PM

Well done job

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Bura Muhammad Ilallah
October 18, 2019 at 7:18 PM

Nice idea nest level for researchers.

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Ibrahim Abdullahi
October 18, 2019 at 6:39 PM

This is a welcome development. It is equally timely and informative. Thank you

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Great! It's flexible, timely, and concise.
October 18, 2019 at 10:45 PM

Good job

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Badamasi Ja'afaru
October 19, 2019 at 12:29 AM

Very useful & indeed helpful to students. Keep that UP APA.. Thanks to the realm

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Badamasi Ja'afaru
October 19, 2019 at 12:32 AM

Very useful & indeed helpful to students. Keep that UP APA.. Thanks to the team

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The APA 7th edition is very interesting and timely
October 19, 2019 at 2:45 AM

APA 7th edition is quite interesting and its introduction is very timely.

Many thanks to the American Psychological Association (APA)

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Raphael Caleb Ogechi
October 18, 2019 at 6:35 PM

Truly, this information is timely. I hope students, researchers, institutions and instructors get to know this in time so as to work on the same pedestal.
Kudos to APA team and you Raimo Streefkerk for sharing this...

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Prof. Garba Shuaibu(BU)
October 18, 2019 at 6:24 PM

Keep it up APA

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Prof. Garba Shuaibu(BU)
October 18, 2019 at 6:15 PM

Since technology transform the world we should indeed expect transformation and further transformations from APA to take the lead in information writing standard. APA...keep it up.

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Dr Ojeka Ebibi
October 18, 2019 at 6:10 PM

What a proactive step? Quite ingenious, innovative and timely. A copy should be made in PDF format and uploaded for people to download. It is a great work.

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Robert Ohene-Bonsu Simmons
October 18, 2019 at 5:54 PM

Good work! Technology decides

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Phoebe M
October 18, 2019 at 4:26 PM

I think that this is timely and okay.

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Mughele Sophia
October 18, 2019 at 4:17 PM

Thanks to APA team a job well done, this is innovative and it will foster dynamism in research.
Kudos

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Adeleke, Ibrahim Taiwo
October 18, 2019 at 3:45 PM

This is timely and quite informative.

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Prof.F.A.Okwo
October 18, 2019 at 3:31 PM

Thanks for the information. Citation and referencing will continue to change as technology improves.

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Ahmad Hashim
October 18, 2019 at 3:25 PM

An application should ve developed for all this purposes to avoid obsolate knowledge

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Man Blaise Dery
October 18, 2019 at 3:16 PM

This is great work done. We hope the new edition will help us a lot in research and development.

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Olaleye Muhammed
October 18, 2019 at 11:59 PM

Great one, how can the new 7th edition be downloaded.

Thank you

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Victor inyang
October 18, 2019 at 3:08 PM

Wow this is a timely change kudo.

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Moshood Sikiru
October 18, 2019 at 3:01 PM

Very useful and helpful. Thanks for your concerns.

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Dr. M. A Dada
October 18, 2019 at 2:29 PM

Kudos to the dynamic world. Change is necessary in a dynamic society. As time progresses, knowledge improves and taste gets higher, hence hunger for a change which has become inevitable. We are not living in a static world, we are making our world better each Day. This is possible because of GOD's great investment in us as human beings who happen to be His image. We shall continue to witness series of changes that give us a better society each Day as time goes on. Bravo! to all those used as instrument of this wonderful change.

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Dr. David Imosemi
October 18, 2019 at 2:09 PM

This is a good development that is capable to keep research work globally bright

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Dr. Khan
October 18, 2019 at 1:49 PM

So useful...Thanks APA

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Biambo glory.
October 18, 2019 at 1:49 PM

This is great. welcome development.kudos.

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Temitope Banjo
October 18, 2019 at 1:46 PM

Waoh! The new features tend to give room for flexibility.

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Mau
October 18, 2019 at 1:43 PM

Changes go in tune with media change. You did a great job!

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Adenipekun Martins Taiwo
October 18, 2019 at 1:37 PM

Good work.

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Dr. Oparaduru John
October 18, 2019 at 1:24 PM

Thanks for this update. Change is inevitable.

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Meg
October 18, 2019 at 1:11 PM

Thanks for keeping us abreast these changes

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Iteogu, Odizuru
October 19, 2019 at 12:57 AM

Great improvement in research and development.Thanks alot APA team.

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Chidozie
October 18, 2019 at 12:59 PM

Update is apt. Commencement date of Spring 2020 is also a good time for necessary adjustments. Kudos

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FASHINA EMMANUEL
October 18, 2019 at 12:33 PM

This is a great contribution to the body of knowledge. Thank you.

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Ogundana Sesan
October 18, 2019 at 12:30 PM

This is really great. The next level indeed.

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Choice Okaforcha
October 18, 2019 at 12:12 PM

This is good to go. Thanks immeasurably for the input in order to move us abreast with this new development.

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Musa Sule Zakari
October 18, 2019 at 11:30 AM

The changes are significant and helpful to the writing process of research.

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Obah-Akpowoghaha Goldpin Nelson
October 18, 2019 at 10:49 AM

This is brilliant and a welcome development. Good work

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Chama John
October 18, 2019 at 10:28 AM

Great improvement

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Bako Ambrose Tal
October 18, 2019 at 9:13 AM

It is a welcome Development. This, i guess, is as a result of the dynamic nature of Social sciences particularly Sociology. What holds true today may not be so tomorrow. Hmmmm

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Sule Muhammad
February 8, 2020 at 7:55 AM

It's highly development in research process

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Godwin Okeke
October 18, 2019 at 2:21 AM

Very well taken. Thanks for working hard to improve the frontiers of knowledge

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Dr. Ainoko Samson
October 19, 2019 at 8:12 PM

This is quite commendable, APA Team. Keep on improving the process of research paper writing with this kind of brilliant changes as dynamism is the beauty of research which helps to transform the society.

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Comrade Ezekiel K. James
October 24, 2019 at 12:32 PM

APA 7th edition is a job

well-done. It is highly explicit and impressive. Bravo APA!

Reply

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