No Author, Date, or Title in APA Style | Formats & Examples

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

Webpage citations in APA Style consist of five components: author, publication date, title, website name, and URL.

Unfortunately, some of these components are sometimes missing. For instance, there may be no author or publication date. This article explains how to handle different kinds and combinations of missing information.

What’s missing? Solution
Nothing
No author Use title in place of author.
No date Use “n.d.” (“no date”) in place of date.
No title Describe the source in brackets.
No author or date Use title in place of author; use “n.d.” in place of date.
No author or title Use bracketed description in place of author.
No date or title Use “n.d.” in place of date; describe the source in brackets.
No author, date, or title Use bracketed description in place of author; use “n.d.” in place of date.

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Basic webpage citation format

You can explore the basic citation format for a webpage using the example generator below.

No author

APA format Page title. (Year, Month Day). Website Name. URL
APA reference entry APA citation guidelines. (2020, October 30). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation (APA Citation Guidelines, 2020)

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No date

APA format Last name, Initials. (n.d.). Page title. Website Name. URL
APA reference entry Streefkerk, R. (n.d.). APA citation guidelines. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation (Streefkerk, n.d.)

No title

APA format Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). [Description of page]. Website Name. URL
APA reference entry Streefkerk, R. (2020, October 30). [Article about APA citations]. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation (Streefkerk, 2020)

No author or date

APA format Page title. (n.d.). Website Name. URL
APA reference entry APA citation guidelines (n.d.). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation (APA Citation Guidelines, n.d.)

No author or title

APA format [Description of page]. (Year, Month Day). Website Name. URL
APA reference entry [Article about APA citations]. (2020, October 30). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation ([Article about APA citations], 2020)

No date or title

APA format Last name, initials. (n.d.). [Description of page]. Website Name. URL
APA reference entry Streefkerk, R. (n.d.). [Article about APA citations]. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation (Streefkerk, n.d.)

No author, date, or title

APA format [Description of page]. (n.d.). Website Name. URL
APA reference entry [Article about APA citations]. (n.d.). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/
APA in-text citation ([Article about APA citations], n.d.)

Don’t forget: Our APA Citation Generator can handle all of these exceptions for you automatically!

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Check out other APA examples

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Is this article helpful?
Jack Caulfield

Jack is a Brit based in Amsterdam, with an MA in comparative literature. He writes for Scribbr and reads a lot of books in his spare time.

8 comments

Chriszell
June 29, 2022 at 6:17 PM

The source title is long. How to parenthetical citations if there is no Author?

Reply

Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
June 30, 2022 at 12:18 PM

APA suggests including a shortened version of the title in cases where the title is long and there's no author. For example you might shorten the title of this article to No Author.

Reply

Brooke
November 5, 2021 at 9:09 AM

Hi, I was wondering how to cite a correspondence in a journal article? For example, a critical response to an article published in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology (AJCP). This response is in the correspondence section of the journal and is essentially a critique of a published article. The original authors then respond to the physicians who wrote the critique. Below is the beginning of the correspondence.

"To the Editor:
We read with interest the recent article by He et al1 comparing conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While the authors clearly show no advantage to FISH when karyotyping is adequate and propose an algorithmic approach to testing, there is no discussion regarding practical matters, such as turnaround time, potential delay in diagnosis, and actual cost vs benefit."

I'm listing the case here to clarify:
https://academic.oup.com/ajcp/article/145/3/430/1767542

Thank you!

Reply

Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
November 9, 2021 at 2:04 PM

Hi Brooke,

As far as I can tell, APA doesn’t specifically cover citing correspondence like this, but applying their general principles I think you could use a format like the following, just clarifying the nature of the source in brackets after the title:

Hammer, R. D., Doll, D., & Layfield, L. (2016, March). Is it time for a new gold standard? FISH vs cytogenetics in AML diagnosis [Correspondence]. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 145(3), 430–432. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqw008

Reply

Phang Wei Lian
June 27, 2021 at 5:54 AM

Hi there

May I know how date of access from a website can be added to APA referencing? I notice insofar this component has not been included when citing from a website where info may be updated from time to time.

Thanks in advance for your advice.

Reply

Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
June 28, 2021 at 5:45 PM

It's not always necessary to include an access date, but yes, you're right that this should be done when the site is designed to be updated frequently. You can see an example of how to format the access date here.

Reply

Melissa
January 24, 2021 at 8:48 PM

In APA 7th edition, when there is no author and you just have the title to put on alpha order, do you count the word “the?” So if I have “ The adventures of a spy” and “Behind the scenes” which title goes first on the RP?

Reply

Jack Caulfield
Jack Caulfield (Scribbr Team)
January 26, 2021 at 3:26 PM

Hi Melissa,

When the reference entry begins with a title, you ignore articles ("a," "an," or "the") at the start of a title for the purposes of alphabetization. So in your case, "The adventures of a spy" comes first, since you're alphabetizing by "adventures."

Reply

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