The differences between American English and British English when writing your dissertation
When you begin writing your dissertation, you will need to decide what style of English to use.
The most commonly used dialects are American English, British English and Australian English. Although these dialects follow many of the same rules, they also have some important differences – especially in relation to spelling.
Why is it so complicated?
After winning their independence from the British, Americans used language as a way to create their own identity. This led to many variations in spelling and punctuation, among other things. Australia also developed its own written conventions, which lie somewhere between those of the US and the UK (although they tend to be more British). Of the three, Australian English is generally the most flexible.
Basic spelling differences
The following “cheat sheet” outlines the preferred spelling of some words that are commonly used in academic writing.
|program||programme (but program if computer-related)||program|
Don’t forget: Consistency is key!
Each word should of course be spelled the same throughout your document. However, it’s also important not to use a mix of English styles.
The defense minister first travelled to China in 2013. (US English/UK English)
The defense minister first traveled to China in 2013. (all US English)
The defence minister first travelled to China in 2013. (all UK English)
In addition, the same spelling should generally be used for all forms of a word.
The organization is headquartered in Osaka, but it usually organizes workshops in Tokyo. (all US English)
The colours of the samples varied greatly, but smallest sample was the most colourful. (all UK English)
Which type of English should I choose?
Some universities have a preference, so you may wish to check your school’s website for guidance. If you are free to decide yourself, it’s best to pick the style that feels most natural to you. Once you have done so, make sure that this is the language that is set for your document (in Microsoft Word, select Tools à Language).
Further understanding the differences
If you want to know more about spelling and other grammatical differences between these styles of English, the below tables provide more details. Bear in mind that the rules are not always very firm: there are many exceptions, and conventions are always changing!
Spelling: As can be seen, the variation usually relates to just one or two letters.
|a||uses -ize, -yze (e.g. quantize, analyze)||prefers -ise, -yse (e.g. quantise, analyse), but is flexible||almost always uses ise, yse|
|b||-er (e.g. center, meter, etc.)||-re (e.g. centre, metre, etc.)||British usage|
|c||uses -or (e.g. honor, color, splendor)||uses -our (e.g. honour, colour, splendour)||British usage|
|d||uses –ction (e.g. connection)||acceptable to use –xion (e.g. connexion)||American usage|
|e||prefers single consonants (e.g. canceled, focuses, appal), with certain exceptions for words in which the stressed syllable falls on the doubled consonant (e.g. willful)||uses double consonants (e.g. focusses, cancelled, appall), with certain exceptions (e.g. wilful)||British usage|
|f||often drops -e for word modifications (e.g. judge à judgment, live à livable)||generally keeps e for word modifications (e.g. judge à judgementlive à liveable)||keeps -e: (e.g. judgement), like British; but sometimes drops -e: (e.g. livable)|
|g||-e usually preferred to -oe or -ae (e.g. pediatrician, leukemia, etc.)||-oe and -ae used (e.g. paediatrician, leukaemia, etc.)||British usage|
Punctuation: Here the main differences relate to whether to use single or double quotation marks, and where to put other punctuation in relation to those quotation marks.
|a||Double quotation marks (“x”), but alternate with single for quotations within quotations (e.g. She said, “This model has been called ‘the best.’”)||Single quotation marks (‘x’), but alternate with double for quotations within quotations (e.g. She said, ‘This model has been called “the best”’.)||UK usage|
|b||Punctuation appears within quotation marks (e.g. “The best there is,” she said. or She said, “the best there is.”) except when punctuation emphasizes the writer’s sentence rather than the speaker’s quotation (e.g. Did she say, “the best there is”? or “She told them we are “the best there is”!)||Punctuation appears outside quotation marks, except when the punctuation is part of the original quotation (e.g. ‘The best there is’, she said. but She said, ‘the best there is.’; also, Did she say, ‘the best there is’? but She asked, ‘the best there is?’)||UK usage|
Verb forms: The different styles of English do not always agree about whether singular or plural verbs should be used with certain nouns. There is also disagreement about some past forms of verbs.
|a||Collective nouns (nouns referring to a group of individual things) take verbs as conjugated for singular nouns (e.g. The team is going to win. or The staff has decided. or The team leads the charge.)||Collective nouns (nouns referring to a group of individual things) take verbs as conjugated for plural nouns (e.g. The team are going to win. or The staff have decided. or The team lead the charge.)||US usage|
|b||Verbs take -ed endings for simple past tense and past participles (e.g. compel à compelled,spell à spelled,learn à learned) with the exception of common irregular verbs (e.g. take à took, hear à heard)||Verbs take -ed endings for simple past tense and past participles, but with more exceptions (e.g.compel à compelled but spell à spelt,learn à learnt); irregular verbs are conjugated the same||UK usage|
Abbreviations: There is also disagreement over how to use periods in abbreviations.
|Most title abbreviations take a period (e.g. Doctor à Dr. Missus à Mrs. Honorable à Hon. Avenue à Ave.)||Title abbreviations take a period only if the abbreviation does not end on the last letter of the full word (e.g. Doctor à Dr Missus à Mrs butHonourable à Hon. Avenue à Ave.)||UK usage|