APA Citation Generator

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Generate website citation

Tip: Enter the URL of a webpage to automatically fill in the fields. New

Choose the type of website. If the type is not in the drop down list, choose ‘Other’. You can then fill in the source type yourself.

The source type will be shown in the citation (except for regular webpages).

Check 'Title not available?' if you can’t find the title. Instead write a short description of the source.

Use a capital letter for the first letter of the title, the subtitle and any names.

Example: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

Date you accessed the website.

Indicating the retrieval date is particularly useful when the contents of the source changes often (for example Wikipedia).

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* Mandatory fields according to the official APA Manual (6th edition). Or use our APA Quick Guide.

Generate book citation

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Tip: Enter the ISBN of the book to automatically fill in fields. New

Use a capital letter for the first letter of the title, the subtitle and any names.

Example: Sharing private information online: The mediator effect of social exchange

Only fill in the page numbers if the source is a chapter from a bundle.

Publication type

Sometimes only an online version of a book or bundle can be found.

Use the DOI if you have used a digital version. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

Example DOI: doi:10.1037 /1089-2680.10.4.377

Can’t find the DOI? Use the URL of the website where you have found the journal article.

If you have used the printed version of a book, you can leave the DOI and URL empty. However, you should fill in the name, city and country of the publisher.

To keep the publisher’s name brief remove the words ‘Publishers’, ‘Publishing’, ‘Co.’ and ‘Inc.’.

Don’t remove ‘Press’ or ‘Books’ if it is in the publisher’s name.

This can usually be found on the second page of the book.

Fill in the abbreviation of the state if the book is published in the United States.

Leave the state empty if the publisher is a university with the state in its name.

Example of a university with the state in its name: University of California Press

Leave empty if the year is unknown.

Fill in the edition of the book.

Leave empty if it is the first edition.

Rev. ed.
1st ed.
2nd ed.
3rd ed.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Example: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

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* Mandatory fields according to the official APA Manual (6th edition). Or use our APA Quick Guide.

Generate citation for a journal article

Tip: Fill in the DOI of the journal article to automatically fill in all fields. New

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle.

Example: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

Capitalize the first letter of the first and all main words. The subtitle is not mentioned.

Example: Journal of Marketing Research

If an article is accepted for publication, but is not yet published, you should mark the check box ‘Not published yet?’

Publication type

Journals are often published both in digital and printed format.

Use the DOI if you have used a digital version of the journal. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

Example DOI: doi:10.1037 /1089-2680.10.4.377

Can’t find the DOI? Use the URL of the website where you have found the journal article.

If you have used the printed version of the journal you can leave the DOI and URL inputs empty.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Example: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

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* Mandatory fields according to the official APA Manual (6th edition). Or use our APA Quick Guide.

Generate newspaper or magazine article citation

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle.

Example: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

For newspaper and magazine articles you also fill in the year, month and (optionally) day of publication.

Page numbers are not mandatory for online publications.

Publication type

Newspaper and magazines are often published on print as well as online.

Did you check the digital version? Fill in the url.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Example: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

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* Mandatory fields according to the official APA Manual (6th edition). Or use our APA Quick Guide.

Report citation

Use this form for generating citations for all kinds of reports and for theses, essays, papers and dissertations from other students.

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and the subtitle.

Example: Dynamic marketing behavior: A functionalist theory of marketing

For most sources you should leave this field empty.

The report number should be mentioned between parentheses after the title.

These are added automatically.

Example: Deming, D. (2008). Lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper No. 14124). Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

Example: Riediger, C. (2009). Psycho-analytical defense mechanisms (Master’s thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Austria). Retrieved from http://example.com/dipl/2009/AC05040439.pdf

Usually reports are published only digitally.

Did you use a printed version of the report? Search for the digital version on the internet or fill in the printed version at the tab ‘Book’.

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* Mandatory fields according to the official APA Manual (6th edition). Or use our APA Quick Guide.

Conference papers/proceedings citation

Use this option if the conference paper is available only online (e.g. as pdf).

For example, proceedings from a yearly conference.

A conference paper from a printed bundle of conference proceedings.

The whole publication instead of a single paper in the publication.

Use the 'Journal' tab for this type of conference paper

Treat a conference paper the same as a journal if proceedings are published on a regular basis. Use the form at the 'Journal' tab to generate this conference paper's reference.

Fill in the name of the conference in the field for journal title.

Fill in the title of the conference bundle.

Example: Proceedings of the Medtronic Forum for Neuroscience and Neuro-Technology

Use a capital letter for the first letter of the title, the subtitle and any names.

Examples: Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome: A movement disorder

Fill in the full name of the conference.

Example: Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems

Fill in the city where the conference took place.

Fill in the country where the conference took place.

Fill in the state if the conference took place in the Unites States

Only fill in the page numbers if the source is a chapter from a bundle.

Publication type

Sometimes a conference paper is only available in a digital format.

Use the DOI if you have used a digital version. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier.

Example DOI: doi:10.1037 /1089-2680.10.4.377

Can’t find the DOI? Fill in the URL of the website.

To keep the publisher’s name brief remove the words ‘Publishers’, ‘Publishing’, ‘Co.’ and ‘Inc.’.

Don’t remove ‘Press’ or ‘Books’ if it is in the publisher’s name.

Fill in the publisher's city.

This can usually be found on the second page of the book.

Fill in the abbreviation of the state if the book is published in the United States.

Leave the state empty if the publisher is a university with the state in its name.

Example of a university with the state in its name: University of California Press

Leave empty if the year is unknown.

Fill in the edition of the book.

Leave empty if it is the first edition.

Rev. ed.
1st ed.
2nd ed.
3rd ed.

Quoting is when you literally copy a part of a text from a source. When you quote you must use quotation marks.

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

Example: This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that ‘a flexible mind is a healthy mind’ (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).

When you quote from a source you have to mention the page number in your in-text citation.

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Cancel
* Mandatory fields according to the official APA Manual (6th edition). Or use our APA Quick Guide.

Frequently asked questions about the APA style

Why should I use the Scribbr Citation Generator?

The Scribbr Citation Generator is easy to use, accurate and accessible for all students. Some features you’ll definitely like are:

  • Lightning fast Autocite using a URL, DOI or ISBN
  • Customized citation forms that help you avoid incorrect citations
  • Quick tips that make citing easier
  • No costs, no ads, no limitations
Do I have to create an account?

Creating an account is not required to use the Scribbr Citation Generator. However, it does have some benefits:

  • Safely store your reference list in a Scribbr account
  • Create multiple reference lists
  • Work from multiple devices

Note that if you’re not signed in, your reference list is stored as a cookie on your browser, which means you can easily lose your work. Be sure to download a backup on a regular basis.

Can I download my reference list to Word?

Yes, after creating your citations you can download your reference list to Word. You can find the ‘Export to Word’ button in the top right corner when viewing your reference list.

To save you some time, we already applied the correct APA reference page formatting, with one-inch margins, double line spacing and a hanging indent.

What citation styles does the Scribbr Citation Generator support?

The Scribbr Citation Generator currently supports the following citation styles and we’re working hard on supporting more citation styles in the future.

Scribbr uses industry-standard citation styles from the Citation Styles Language project.

What do I do if information is missing?

If information about a source is missing or unknown, and our explanatory tooltips (?) cannot help you, you can either check the ‘unknown’ checkbox (if available) or skip the field. The citation will still be generated for you with the information you have provided.

More information and examples

Where can I give feedback?

On the right side of your screen you’ll find a purple feedback button. It works like this:

  1. Rate your experience
  2. Select the element you want to give feedback on (optional)
  3. Provide your feedback

We take your feedback very seriously, and we’ll do our best to fix issues as soon as possible.

In-text citation examples

Warning! Use this citation if you've already used the above citation in your document.

APA Citation Generator

APA Citation Guide

APA Manual Quick GuideAPA Style is one of the most widely used citation styles. Other popular styles for citing sources are MLA Citation Style and Chicago Style. This quick guide will help you become more familiar with the APA citation and formatting guidelines.

When you refer to a source in your work, include an in-text citation. This means citing the authors’ last names and the publication year directly in the sentence where you use the information.

After the main body of your work, you must also include a reference page, where you cite all your sources in full. This not only helps your readers retrieve the sources used in your work, but is one step to ensuring you do not commit plagiarism.

APA in-text citations

An in-text citation is a concise way to show the reader where the original idea came from and to give credit to the original author.

According to APA’s citation guidelines, you should write down the last name of the authors and the year of publication. This can be done in multiple ways:

  • An earlier study in which X and Y were compared revealed that … (Smith, 1988).
  • Smith (1984) shows how, in the past, research into X was mainly concerned with …
  • In 1984, research was carried out by Smith that indicated that …

Multiple authors

When there are two authors, separate their last names with an ampersand.

When there are three or more authors, separate their last names using commas. The last two authors’ last names should be separated by both a comma and an ampersand (in a citation) or “and” (in the running text).

Two authors

  • Research shows that there is a great need for … (Reynolds & Thomas, 2014).
  • Reynolds and Thomas (2014) write that there is a great need for …

3-5 authors

  • Recent research suggests that there is … (McGuire, Morrison, Reynolds, & Thomas, 2014).
  • McGuire, Morrison, Reynolds, and Thomas (2014) argue that …

As you can imagine, citing a source with 3–5 authors takes up a lot of space in the text.

That is why you shorten the citation when you use the source a second, third or fourth time.

How? Instead of writing down all authors’ last names, write only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.,” which means “and others.”

  • In this research, many participants made use of … (McGuire et al., 2014).
  • McGuire et al. (2014) noticed that …

6 or more authors

When your source has six or more authors, simply use the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” in your in-text citation:

  • Lunott et al. (2015) see the …

Organization as author

When the source is published by an organization instead of a person, cite the organization’s name as the author.

  • According to new research … (Microsoft, 2014).

Quotes

When you copy an excerpt of a text from another source and place it between quotation marks, you are quoting. When you quote sources, you are required to add the page number to the in-text citation.

  • This is also true from the business plan: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work, but many students benefit from it” (Swan, 2014, p. 5).

Multiple sources in one citation

Sometimes, it’s necessary to cite multiple sources in one sentence. You can do this by citing multiples sources and separating them using semicolons.

  • Various studies show that … (Docker & Vagrant, 2002; Porter, 1997; Lima, Swan, & Corrieri, 2012).

Full in-text citation guide

APA reference page

Every source that is cited in the text also has to be cited in full in your reference list.

The format differs depending on the source type (e.g. a website, journal, book, etc.), but every reference starts the same:

  • Format:
    LastnameAuthor1, InitialsAuthor1, & LastnameAuthor2, InitialsAuthor2. (PublicationYear/Date). Title.
  • Reference page:
    Beswick, G., & Rothblum, E. D. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination.

APA book citations

Note: Book titles should be italicized.

  • Format:
    AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleBook (edition). City, State/Country: Publisher.
  • Reference page:
    Porter, M. E. (1998). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (3th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

APA journal article citations

Note: The journal title and volume number should be italicized.

  • Format:
    AuthorLastName, Initials., & Author LastName, Initials. (Year). TitleArticle. TitleJournal, Volume(Issue), Page Number(s). https://doi.org/DoiNumber
  • Reference page:
    Andreff, W., & Staudohar, P. D. (2000). The evolving European model of professional sports finance. Journal of Sports Economics, 1(3), 257–276. https://doi.org./10.1177/152700250000100304

 APA website citations

Nothing should be italicized.

  • Format:
    AuthorLastName, Initials. (Year, Month Day). TitleArticle [OptionalType]. Retrieved from http://WebAddress
  • Reference page:
    Worland, J. (2015, July 27). U.S. flood risk could be worse than we thought. Retrieved from http://time.com/3973256/flooding-risk-coastal-cities/

 APA report citations

Note: The title should be italicized.

  • Format:
    NameOrganization or AuthorLastName, Initials. (YearofPublication). Title Report. Retrieved from http://WebAddress
  • Reference page:
    Royal Bank of Scotland. (2015). Annual Report and Accounts 2014. Retrieved from http://investors.rbs.com/~/media/Files/R/RBS-IR/2014-reports/annual-report-2014.pdf

More APA Style examples

Do you want to cite a photo, interview, YouTube video, movie or another source type that is not on this list? We have many more APA Style examples to help you cite correctly.

Sorting the reference list

Sort the references in alphabetical order based on the author’s last names of that reference. If multiple sources are written by the same author(s), then sort them by publication year.

When you use the APA Citation Generator, your list is sorted automatically.

APA reference page guide

APA formatting

There are certain formatting rules you must adhere to when writing a paper in apa format.

The basic requirements are:

  • Text must be double-spaced
  • Margins must be set to one inch (or 2.54 cm)
  • You must use a left-aligned running head with a shortened title on all pages
  • It is strongly recommended to use Times New Roman in 12 pt (if your university allows it, you might be able to use a different font)

In addition to these general rules that apply for every part of an APA style paper, each section has its own requirements. Learn about the requirements by looking at the interactive formatting examples of the title page, running head, abstract, reference page and headings and subheadings.

Avoid plagiarism

Plagiarism means copying someone else’s work, without giving that author credit. This is not only unfair for the original author, but also considered cheating which can have severe consequences.

Tips for avoiding plagiarism:

  • Save your sources. This way, you can keep track of them. You don’t necessarily have to have the citation perfectly formatted from the beginning.
  • When you quote or paraphrase text, temporarily highlight it to remind yourself that you need to add the correct citations.
    Check whether you’ve cited all your sources correctly, both in the text and in the reference list.
  • Quote, paraphrase and summarize other’s work correctly.
  • Run a plagiarism checker.

Scribbr Plagiarism Checker

APA Generator FAQ

Why should I use the Scribbr Citation Generator?

The Scribbr Citation Generator is easy to use, accurate and accessible for all students. Some features you’ll definitely like are:

  • Lightning fast Autocite using a URL, DOI or ISBN
  • Customized citation forms that help you avoid incorrect citations
  • Quick tips that make citing easier
  • No costs, no ads, no limitations
Do I have to create an account?

Creating an account is not required to use the Scribbr Citation Generator. However, it does have some benefits:

  • Safely store your reference list in a Scribbr account
  • Create multiple reference lists
  • Work from multiple devices

Note that if you’re not signed in, your reference list is stored as a cookie on your browser, which means you can easily lose your work. Be sure to download a backup on a regular basis.

Can I download my reference list to Word?

Yes, after creating your citations you can download your reference list to Word. You can find the ‘Export to Word’ button in the top right corner when viewing your reference list.

To save you some time, we already applied the correct APA reference page formatting, with one-inch margins, double line spacing and a hanging indent.

What citation styles does the Scribbr Citation Generator support?

The Scribbr Citation Generator currently supports the following citation styles and we’re working hard on supporting more citation styles in the future.

Scribbr uses industry-standard citation styles from the Citation Styles Language project.

What do I do if information is missing?

If information about a source is missing or unknown, and our explanatory tooltips (?) cannot help you, you can either check the ‘unknown’ checkbox (if available) or skip the field. The citation will still be generated for you with the information you have provided.

More information and examples

Where can I give feedback?

On the right side of your screen you’ll find a purple feedback button. It works like this:

  1. Rate your experience
  2. Select the element you want to give feedback on (optional)
  3. Provide your feedback

We take your feedback very seriously, and we’ll do our best to fix issues as soon as possible.