Dissertation Table of Contents in Word | Instructions & Examples

The table of contents is where you list the chapters and major sections of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper, alongside their page numbers. A clear and well-formatted table of contents is essential, as it demonstrates to your reader that a quality paper will follow.

The table of contents (TOC) should be placed between the abstract and the introduction. The maximum length should be two pages. Depending on the nature of your thesis, dissertation, or paper, there are a few formatting options you can choose from.

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Thesis & Dissertation Acknowledgements | Tips & Examples

Acknowledgements-section

The acknowledgements section is your opportunity to thank those who have helped and supported you personally and professionally during your thesis or dissertation process.

Thesis or dissertation acknowledgements appear between your title page and abstract and should be no longer than one page.

In your acknowledgements, it’s okay to use a more informal style than is usually permitted in academic writing, as well as first-person pronouns. Acknowledgements are not considered part of the academic work itself, but rather your chance to write something more personal.

To get started, download our step-by-step template in the format of your choice below. We’ve also included sample sentence starters to help you construct your acknowledgments section from scratch.

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Academic Integrity vs. Academic Dishonesty

Academic integrity is the value of being honest, ethical, and thorough in your academic work. It allows readers to trust that you aren’t misrepresenting your findings or taking credit for the work of others.

Academic dishonesty (or academic misconduct) refers to actions that undermine academic integrity. It typically refers to some form of plagiarism, ranging from serious offenses like purchasing a pre-written essay to milder ones like accidental citation errors.

These concepts are also essential in the world of professional academic research and publishing. In this context, accusations of misconduct can have serious legal and reputational consequences.

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Types of Interviews in Research | Guide & Examples

An interview is a qualitative research method that relies on asking questions in order to collect data. Interviews involve two or more people, one of whom is the interviewer asking the questions.

There are several types of interviews, often differentiated by their level of structure. Structured interviews have predetermined questions asked in a predetermined order. Unstructured interviews are more free-flowing, and semi-structured interviews fall in between.

Interviews are commonly used in market research, social science, and ethnographic research.

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How Do Plagiarism Checkers Work? | With Example

A plagiarism checker uses advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts. They are used by universities to scan student assignments. There are also commercial plagiarism checkers you can use to check your own work before submitting.

Behind the scenes, plagiarism checkers crawl web content and index it, scanning your text for similarities against a database of existing content on the internet. Exact matches are highlighted using keyword analysis. Some checkers can also identify non-exact matches (paraphrasing plagiarism).

On the user end, the checker typically provides you with a plagiarism percentage, highlights the plagiarism, and lists the sources. You can get an interactive look at the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker below.

Interactive Scribbr sample report

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What Is Self-Plagiarism? | Definition & How to Avoid It

Plagiarism often involves using someone else’s words or ideas without proper citation, but you can also plagiarize yourself. Self-plagiarism means reusing work that you have already published or submitted for a class. It can involve:

  • Resubmitting an entire paper
  • Copying or paraphrasing passages from your previous work
  • Recycling previously collected data
  • Separately publishing multiple articles about the same research

Self-plagiarism misleads your readers by presenting previous work as completely new and original. If you want to include any text, ideas, or data that you already submitted in a previous assignment, be sure to inform your readers by citing yourself.

To ensure your text doesn’t contain unintentional self-plagiarism, get your document checked before submission by specialized self-plagiarism software, such as our Self-Plagiarism Checker.

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Unstructured Interview | Definition, Guide & Examples

An unstructured interview is a data collection method that relies on asking participants questions to collect data on a topic. Also known as non-directive interviewing, unstructured interviews do not have a set pattern and questions are not arranged in advance.

In research, unstructured interviews are usually qualitative in nature, and can be very helpful for social science or humanities research focusing on personal experiences.

An unstructured interview can be a particularly useful exploratory research tool. Known for being very informal and flexible, they can yield captivating responses from your participants.

Note
Unstructured interviews differ from other types of interviews because none of the questions are predetermined in topic or order. The other three most common types of interviews are:

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Semi-Structured Interview | Definition, Guide & Examples

A semi-structured interview is a data collection method that relies on asking questions within a predetermined thematic framework. However, the questions are not set in order or in phrasing.

In research, semi-structured interviews are often qualitative in nature. They are generally used as an exploratory tool in marketing, social science, survey methodology, and other research fields.

They are also common in field research with many interviewers, giving everyone the same theoretical framework, but allowing them to investigate different facets of the research question.

Note
Semi-structured interviews are a mix of structured and unstructured interviews. While a few questions are predetermined, the others aren’t planned. The other three most common types of interviews are:

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Structured Interview | Definition, Guide & Examples

A structured interview is a data collection method that relies on asking questions in a set order to collect data on a topic. It is one of four types of interviews.

In research, structured interviews are often quantitative in nature. They can also be used in qualitative research if the questions are open-ended, but this is less common.

While structured interviews are often associated with job interviews, they are also common in marketing, social science, survey methodology, and other research fields.

Note
Structured interviews differ from other types of interviews because the questions are predetermined in both topic and order.The other three most common types of interviews are:

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What Is Peer Review? | Types & Examples

Peer review, sometimes referred to as refereeing, is the process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Using strict criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decides whether to accept each submission for publication.

Peer-reviewed articles are considered a highly credible source due to the stringent process they go through before publication.

There are various types of peer review. The main difference between them is to what extent the authors, reviewers, and editors know each other’s identities. The most common types are:

Relatedly, peer assessment is a process where your peers provide you with feedback on something you’ve written, based on a set of criteria or benchmarks from an instructor. They then give constructive feedback, compliments, or guidance to help you improve your draft.

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