Validity tells you how accurately a method measures something. If a method measures what it claims to measure, and the results closely correspond to real-world values, then it can be considered valid. There are four main types of validity:
Reliability tells you how consistently a method measures something. When you apply the same method to the same sample under the same conditions, you should get the same results. If not, the method of measurement may be unreliable or bias may have crept into your research.
There are four main types of reliability. Each can be estimated by comparing different sets of results produced by the same method.
Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method, technique. or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure.opt
Uncountable nouns, also known as mass nouns or noncount nouns, refer to a mass of something or an abstract concept that can’t be counted (except with a unit of measurement). In contrast, countable nouns can be counted as individual items.
Indicating a contraction (e.g., She’s writing a paper)
Contractions should be avoided in academic writing, but possessive apostrophes are used in all types of writing. Make sure to use them correctly, especially when dealing with plurals and abbreviations.
Subject-verb agreement means that the subject of the sentence matches the verb describing its action. This helps your reader understand who or what is doing something and makes your writing easier to read.
First, identify the subject (the person or thing doing the action) and the verb (the action word) in a sentence. If the subject is singular, the verb describing its action should be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb should be plural.
Singular subject + verb
Plural subject + verb
The resultis significant.
The resultsare significant.
The studentdoes her best.
The studentsdo their best.
The childbecomes happier.
The childrenbecome happier.
That treecauses hay fever.
Those treescause hay fever.
The authoranalyzes the text.
The authorsanalyze the text.
While subject-verb agreement is easy in simple sentences like these, it can become tricky in more complex sentences. This article teaches you the most important rules and common mistakes.