How to paraphrase sources
Paraphrasing means formulating someone else’s ideas in your own words, without changing the meaning of the original text. Paraphrasing is the opposite of quoting, where you copy someone else’s words word-for-word and put it in quotation marks.
How to paraphrase
- Read the passage several times to fully understand the meaning
- Note down key concepts
- Write your version of the text without looking at the original
- Compare your paraphrased text with the original passage and make minor adjustments to phrases that remain too similar
- Cite the source from where you took the idea
The paraphrased passage meets all paraphrasing criteria:
- The text is stated in your own words
- The meaning of the text did not change
- The source is cited correctly
The five steps to paraphrasing may seem straightforward, but writing an idea in a different way than the published version can be difficult. These are four tricks you can apply to help you do so.
- Start your first sentence at a different point from that of the original source
- Use as many synonyms as possible
- Change the sentence structure (from active to passive voice)
- Break the information into separate sentences
We have applied these four tips to the example below.
1. Start your first sentence at a different point from that of the original source.
In the example, you can see that we started by introducing the context (the hearing) followed by the last part of the original sentence: the expectations of creators, regulators and users. In fact, the key pieces of information are mentioned in a completely different order.
2. Use as many synonyms as possible
While there are certain parts of the original quote that cannot be changed because there is no ideal synonym (e.g. the hearing; creators, regulators and users; technology), other words or phrases have been replaced with synonyms. E.g. exposed a critical turning point → made it apparent, outpaces → rapidly eclipsed, power → immense influence.
3. Change the sentence structure
For example, if the sentence was originally in the active voice, change it to passive. The active voice is when a sentence is led by the subject (the thing doing the action). When the object (the thing receiving the action) leads the sentence, that sentence is written in the passive voice.
In this example, technology is the subject; the expectations of creators, regulators and users are the object. Therefore, the original quote was written in the active voice, while the paraphrased example favours the passive voice.
4. Break the information into separate sentences.
Although paraphrasing will usually result in a word count roughly the same as an original quote, you may be able to play with the number of sentences to make the text different.
In this example, one long sentence was broken into two. The opposite could also be the case, i.e. if the original quote is comprised of two sentences, you may be able to combine the information into one.
How to cite a paraphrase
Once you have your perfectly paraphrased text, you need to ensure you credit the original author. No matter what citation style you use, you always paraphrase in the same way. The only thing that is different is the text citation.
|APA citation style||(Roose & Kang, 2018, para. 11)|
|MLA citation style||(Roose and Kang 11)|
|Chicago Notes and Bibliography||1. Kevin Roose and Cecilia Kang, “Mark Zuckerberg Testifies on Facebook Before Skeptical Lawmakers,” The New York Times, April 10, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/10/us/politics/zuckerberg-facebook-senate-hearing.html|
Paraphrasing vs. quoting
If you complete thorough research and note-taking of the extant literature, you will naturally end up paraphrasing most of the important information you find, rather than using direct quotes. It is wise to limit the number of direct quotes in your paper because:
- Paraphrasing shows that you clearly understand the meaning of a text
- Your own voice will remain dominant throughout your paper
- Quotes reduce the readability of your text
Quotes should be limited to only when:
- You wish to use an exact definition
- The original wording is so perfect you cannot hope to write it better
- You need to provide evidence or support an argument
Examples of when to quote and when to paraphrase
For this example, let us take a look at an article published on DutchNews.nl, “One in three Dutch children rarely or never play outside,” where the author interviewed a source and elected to quote them on some occasions, while paraphrasing other information.
“This research shows the enormous changes between the generations,” spokeswoman Pauline van der Loo told broadcaster NOS (DutchNews.nl, 2018).
The author likely chose to quote van der Loo here, rather than paraphrase, as a way to show that they gathered the information from a primary source, to introduce the subject that van der Loo would discuss, and to introduce the interviewee herself. The quote also supports the key problem addressed by the article.
While 70% of the current generation of children’s grandparents played more outside than at home, today just 10% of Dutch children are more likely to be outside than play indoors, Van der Loo said (DutchNews.nl, 2018).
They probably decided to paraphrase here to concisely convey the information, and also provide some variety and interest in the text for the reader.
Paraphrasing vs. summarizing
As a paraphrase is an explanation of a certain quote from someone else, put into your own words, it will be approximately the same length as the source’s original quote.
When you completely or partially describe the outcome of a more substantial part of the research, it is called a summary.
There is a distinct difference between paraphrasing and summarizing. However, in general (as is the case in many universities), both are often referred to as paraphrasing.
Example of summarized text
An article published in April 2018 highlighted clear differences between generations of children in the Netherlands, stating that 70% of the grandparents of the current generation spent more time outside than at home, compared to 10% today. Since 2013, the percentage of children who play outside every day has decreased from 20% to just 14%. There are several negative outcomes for children that have resulted from lack of outdoor play, including increasing problems with short-sightedness due to a preference for time on computers, shortages of Vitamin D, problems with weight, and limited development of social skills (DutchNews.nl, 2018).
While paraphrasing and quoting are ideal if you wish to focus on one section of a research article, summarizing is a useful tool if you find the entire source relevant and interesting.
After you have finished writing your paper, featuring perfect paraphrasing and correct citations, you could elect to run a plagiarism check to avoid all plagiarism and set your mind at ease.
This comprehensive scan of your paper will show you if any of your text is too similar to that of the original sources. You can use the plagiarism checker of Scribbr or compare the best plagiarism checkers for students in out in-depth comparison.