How to write and format an APA abstract (6th edition)

This article reflects the APA 6th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 7th edition guidelines.

An APA abstract is a summary of your paper in 150–250 words. It describes the research problem, methods, results and conclusions of your research. For published papers, it also includes a list of keywords.

Write the abstract after you have finished your paper, and place it on a separate page after the title page.

The formatting of the abstract page is the same as the rest of an APA style paper: double-spaced, Times New Roman 12pt font, one-inch margins, and a running head at the top of the page.

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How to cite an interview in APA Style (6th edition)

This article reflects the APA 6th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 7th edition guidelines.

The format of an APA interview citation depends on whether the source is a published interview or an interview you conducted yourself.

Personal interviews that can’t be retrieved by the reader shouldn’t be included in an APA reference list. Instead, cite the interview as a personal communication in the text.

According to the CEO, the company’s communications strategy is moving in a different direction (B. Jones, personal communication, January 22, 2020).

If the interview was published in a retrievable source (e.g. a website, journal, newspaper or book), follow the usual citation format for that type of source.

You can use Scribbr’s free APA Citation Generator to create in-text citations and reference list entries for different source types.

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APA reference page (6th edition)

This article reflects the APA 6th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 7th edition guidelines.

The APA reference page is a separate page at the end of your paper where all sources you cited in the main text are listed. The references are sorted alphabetically, double spaced, and formatted using a hanging indent of ½ inch. Use “References” as page heading and include a running head with your paper title and page number.

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How to cite a YouTube video in MLA

The MLA Works Cited entry for an online video contains the video’s creator, the title, the website or platform in italics (e.g. YouTube), the channel or user that uploaded the video, the upload date, and the URL.

If the video was uploaded by the same person or organization that created it, or if no clear creator can be identified, omit the author element and start with the video’s title instead.

The in-text citation should match the first element of the Works Cited (either the creator’s name, or a short version of the title). You can also include a timestamp in place of a page number.


Note that if you are citing a whole movie that has been uploaded to a video-sharing platform, you should use the format of an MLA movie citation instead. The same goes for a TV episode. For a TED Talk, you can follow the YouTube format if you cite it from YouTube.

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How to cite a journal article in MLA style

An MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article contains the author(s); article title; journal name; volume and issue; month and year; page range; and a DOI if accessed online. In the in-text citation, include the author’s last name and the page number.


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MLA titles: Formatting and capitalization rules

In MLA style, source titles appear either in italics or in quotation marks:

  • Italicize the title of a self-contained whole (e.g. a book, film, journal, or website).
  • Use quotation marks around the title if it is part of a larger work (e.g. a chapter of a book, an article in a journal, or a page on a website).

All major words in a title are capitalized. The same format is used in the Works Cited list and in the text itself.

Place in quotation marks Italicize

When you use the Scribbr MLA Citation Generator, the correct formatting and capitalization are automatically applied to titles.

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Writing author names in MLA

In MLA style, up to two authors are included in a citation. For sources with more than two authors, the citation is shortened with “et al.

In the Works Cited list, the first author’s name is inverted (surname followed by first name). In an in-text citation, only surnames are included.

Number of authors Works Cited example In-text citation example
1 author Wallace-Wells, David. (Wallace-Wells 11)
2 authors Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik M. Conway. (Oreskes and Conway 84)
3+ authors Armstrong, Anne K., et al. (Armstrong et al. 127–139)

The author element specifies the main creator of the source. For audiovisual sources, this may be the director, composer, or painter, for example. The author may also be an organization.

If no author at all is specified, start your citation with the source title instead.

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Dissertation table of contents

The table of contents is where you list the chapters and major sections of your dissertation, along with their page numbers. A clear and well-formatted contents page is essential as it indicates a quality paper is to follow.

The table of contents belongs between the abstract and the introduction. The maximum length should be two pages.

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Dissertation acknowledgements

The dissertation acknowledgements section is where you thank those who have helped and supported you during the research and writing process. This includes both professional and personal acknowledgements.

The dissertation acknowledgements appear directly after the title page and before the abstract, and should usually be no longer than one page.

In the acknowledgements, you can use a more informal style than is usually permitted in academic writing. This is not part of the academic work itself it is your chance to write something more personal. For that reason, you may use first-person pronouns in this section.

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How to cite a play in MLA

When citing a play with numbered lines, the MLA parenthetical citation should include the author name and the act, scene and line number(s). If the lines are not numbered, include the page number instead.

When quoting dialogue, include the character names in all capitals followed by a period, and pay attention to indentation.

Quoting and citing a play
ROSS. I’ll see it done.
DUNCAN. What he hath lost noble Macbeth hath won. (Shakespeare 1.2.94–95)

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