An APA abstract is a summary of your paper in 150–250 words. It describes the research problem, methods, results and conclusions of your research. For published papers, it also includes a list of keywords.
Write the abstract after you have finished your paper, and place it on a separate page after the title page.
The formatting of the abstract page is the same as the rest of an APA style paper: double-spaced, Times New Roman 12pt font, one-inch margins, and a running head at the top of the page.
Continue reading: How to write and format an APA abstract
The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for two styles of citation: author-date and notes and bibliography:
- In notes and bibliography style (mostly used in the humanities), you use footnotes or endnotes to cite sources.
- In author-date style (mostly used in the sciences), you use brief parenthetical references to cite sources in the text.
In both styles, full source citations are listed in an alphabetized bibliography or reference list.
The Chicago Manual of Style is regularly updated. Our examples are all based on the 17th edition, which is the most recent (published in 2017).
Continue reading: Chicago style citation examples
It is crucial that you use credible primary and secondary sources to ensure the validity of your academic research, but knowing which ones are credible can be difficult!
Luckily, there are some tricks for helping you figure out if a source is credible, which we have outlined in our guide to evaluating sources using the CRAAP test.
If you are not sure where to begin, we have collected a list of credible sources to help point you in the right direction.
Continue reading: List of credible sources for research
Footnotes are superscript numbers (1) placed within the body of text. They can be used for two things:
- As a form of citation in certain citation styles
- As a provider of additional information.
Using footnotes has one big advantage; you can include additional information without distracting the reader from the main text.
Continue reading: How to use footnotes and endnotes
Evaluating the credibility of the sources you use is of key importance to ensure the credibility and reliability of your academic research. California State University developed the CRAAP test to help evaluate the credibility of a source. There are five main considerations:
- Currency: Is the information up-to-date?
- Relevance: Is the information relevant and of a level appropriate for your research?
- Authority: Where is the information published and who is the author?
- Accuracy: Where does the information come from? Is it supported by evidence?
- Purpose: Why was this information published? What was the motive?
Together these considerations form the acronym CRAAP; a well-known method for evaluating source credibility.
For each type of source (website, journal, book, etc.) we formulated different questions that fall within the five categories of the CRAAP test.
Continue reading: CRAAP test: evaluating source credibility
When you include a long quote in an MLA paper, you have to format it as a block quote. MLA style (8th edition) requires block quote formatting for:
- Quotes of poetry longer than three lines
- Quotes of prose longer than four lines
An MLA block quote is set on a new line, indented 0.5 inches, with no quotation marks. The in-text citation goes after the period at the end of the block quote.
Continue reading: Block quoting in MLA style
In-text citations are used each time you quote, paraphrase or refer to a source in the body of your paper. The in-text citation directs the reader to the correct entry in the reference list or bibliography.
Every citation style has different rules for how to cite your sources. Your supervisor or university will usually inform you which citation style to use. If you are allowed to choose, it’s important to consistently follow one style.
You can easily create in-text citations in APA or MLA style using our free citation generators.
APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator
Continue reading: In-text citation in APA, MLA and Chicago
During your research, you might come across an entire source, chapter or longer section of text that is relevant and interesting to your own study. In that case, rather than simply pull out one quote or paraphrase a particular section, you may wish to summarize the source in its entirety.
Continue reading: When and how to summarize sources
A block quote is a long quotation, set on a new line and indented to create a separate block of text. No quotation marks are used. You have to use a block quote when quoting more than around 40 words from a source.
In APA and MLA styles, you indent block quotes 0.5 inches from the left, and add an in-text citation after the period. Some other citation styles have additional rules.
Block quote example
Although Brontë lived an isolated life, she writes about human emotion with remarkable insight, as exemplified by Heathcliff’s impassioned speech:
Catherine Earnshaw, may you not rest as long as I am living; you said I killed you – haunt me, then! The murdered DO haunt their murderers, I believe. I know that ghosts HAVE wandered on earth. Be with me always – take any form – drive me mad! only DO not leave me in this abyss, where I cannot find you! Oh, God! it is unutterable! I CANNOT live without my life! I CANNOT live without my soul! (Brontë, 1847, 268)
Continue reading: How to block quote: a step-by-step guide
Paraphrasing means formulating someone else’s ideas in your own words. To paraphrase a source, you have to rewrite a passage without changing the meaning of the original text.
Paraphrasing is an alternative to quoting, where you copy someone’s exact words and put them in quotation marks. In academic writing, it’s usually better to paraphrase instead of quoting, because it shows that you have understood the source and makes your work more original.
Every time you paraphrase, it’s important to cite the source. You also have to be careful not to use wording that is too similar to the original. Otherwise, you could be at risk of committing plagiarism.
Continue reading: How to paraphrase sources