Inductive vs. Deductive Research Approach | Steps & Examples

The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory.

In other words, inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations. Deductive reasoning works the other way around.

Both approaches are used in various types of research, and it’s not uncommon to combine them in your work.


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Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research | Differences, Examples & Methods

When collecting and analyzing data, quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings. Both are important for gaining different kinds of knowledge.

Quantitative research
Quantitative research is expressed in numbers and graphs. It is used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. This type of research can be used to establish generalizable facts about a topic.

Common quantitative methods include experiments, observations recorded as numbers, and surveys with closed-ended questions.

Quantitative research is at risk for research biases including information bias, omitted variable bias, sampling bias, or selection bias.

Qualitative research
Qualitative research is expressed in words. It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences. This type of research enables you to gather in-depth insights on topics that are not well understood.

Common qualitative methods include interviews with open-ended questions, observations described in words, and literature reviews that explore concepts and theories.

Qualitative research is also at risk for certain research biases including the Hawthorne effect, observer bias, recall bias, and social desirability bias.

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How to make and sell study notes

Studying can be hard, especially when you find yourself trying to maintain your social life, earn some money and still get good grades in school. But there is a way to combine earning money and getting good grades in school, and that’s by selling your study notes.

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Primary vs. Secondary Sources | Difference & Examples

When you do research, you have to gather information and evidence from a variety of sources.

Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. Primary research gives you direct access to the subject of your research.

Secondary sources provide second-hand information and commentary from other researchers. Examples include journal articles, reviews, and academic books. Thus, secondary research describes, interprets, or synthesizes primary sources.

Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but good research uses both primary and secondary sources.

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