Creating APA reference entries

This article reflects the 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual.

APA reference entries provide detailed information about a source. They’re listed on the reference page at the end of your paper and correspond to APA in-text citations in the body text.

You can easily generate APA references (and in-text citations) with a citation generator, but it’s helpful to have a general understanding of the composition of an APA reference. It enables you to review your own work and that of any tool you might be using.

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A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition)

This article reflects the APA 6th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 7th edition guidelines.

An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication, for example: (Smith, 2020). When quoting, also include page numbers, for example (Smith, 2020, p.170).

Here’s what an in-text citation looks like in a sentence:

  • The author claims that “plagiarism is becoming a bigger problem” (Smith, 2014, p. 170).
  • As Smith (2014) has shown, plagiarism is a serious issue for universities.
  • In 2014, Smith found that plagiarism is becoming increasingly widespread.

You can easily generate your in-text citations (and full reference list) in APA format with Scribbr’s free citation generator.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

Continue reading: A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition)

Beginner’s guide to APA in-text citation

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.

In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

APA in-text citations consist of the author’s last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41).

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Worried about in-text citation errors?

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Ordering works on the APA reference page

This article reflects the 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual.

An APA Style reference page is ordered alphabetically by the first element in the reference entry, usually the first author’s last name.

  • Smith, B. H. precedes Thompson, A. G.

In more complex situations, this basic guideline may not be enough. That’s probably why you’re here, right? Luckily, APA created more detailed guidelines that are outlined in this article.

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Setting Up the APA Reference Page | Formatting & References (Examples)

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
APA reference page (7th edition)

On the APA reference page, you list all the sources that you’ve cited in your paper. The list starts on a new page right after the body text.

Follow these instructions to set up your APA reference page:

  • Place the section label “References” in bold at the top of the page (centered).
  • Order the references alphabetically.
  • Double-space all text.
  • Apply a hanging indent of 0.5 inches.
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Continue reading: Setting Up the APA Reference Page | Formatting & References (Examples)

MLA format for academic papers and essays

The MLA Handbook provides guidelines for creating MLA citations and formatting academic papers. This quick guide will help you set up your MLA format paper in no time.

Start by applying these MLA format guidelines to your document:

  • Times New Roman 12
  • 1″ page margins
  • Double line spacing
  • ½” indent for new paragraphs
  • Title case capitalization for headings

Download Word templateOpen Google Docs template

(To use the Google Docs template, copy the file to your Drive by clicking on ‘file’ > ‘Make a copy’)

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APA 7th edition: The most notable changes

APA Manual 7th edition coverIn October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.

In that time a lot of things have changed. Citing online material has become more common, the use of inclusive and bias-free language is increasingly important, and the technology used by researchers and students has changed.

The 7th edition addresses these changes by providing better and more extensive guidelines. This article outlines the biggest changes that you should know about.

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Internal vs. External Validity | Understanding Differences & Threats

When testing cause-and-effect relationships, validity can be split up into two types: internal and external validity.

Internal validity refers to the degree of confidence that the causal relationship being tested is trustworthy and not influenced by other factors or variables.

External validity refers to the extent to which results from a study can be applied (generalized) to other situations, groups or events.

The validity of a study is largely determined by the experimental design. To ensure the validity of the tools or tests you use, you also have to consider measurement validity.

Continue reading: Internal vs. External Validity | Understanding Differences & Threats

Dissertation binding and printing

Your dissertation is finally finished. It’s been professionally proofread and checked with a solid plagiarism checker. The final step is printing your dissertation, which means choosing between:

  • Types of binding
  • Colour vs. black & white
  • Single vs. double-sided
  • Paper type and thickness

You also need to decide which printing and binding service to use. This independent article explains all options and helps you make the right decisions.

Overview of printing services

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Transcribing an Interview | 5 Steps & Transcription Software

Transcribing is converting speech to text word for word. Transcribing is a common practice when conducting interviews because it enables you to perform analysis.

How to transcribe an interview in five steps:

  1. Choose your preferred transcription method
  2. Transcribe the audio (using transcription software)
  3. Add speaker designation and time stamps
  4. Clarify the transcript where needed
  5. Proofread the transcript

Transcription software comparison

Continue reading: Transcribing an Interview | 5 Steps & Transcription Software