Example APA Style: Wikipedia

Wikipedia can be a useful and fast tool to gain knowledge about a topic. However, it is not desirable to use Wikipedia as a source for your dissertation. If you want to refer to Wikipedia anyway, according to the APA Style you need to use the same notation as for a normal internet source .

Because Wikipedia articles can change from time to time, it’s important that you record the date on which you retrieved the Wikipedia page.

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Example APA Style: Apps

The APA Style has specific rules for the reference of information from an app or mobile application software. In addition to the name of the person or entity that holds the rights for the app you also have to add in square brackets that it is a mobile application.

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Example APA Style: Software

According to the APA Style you don’t have to record ‘’standard software’’ like Microsoft Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS, in your reference list.

If you use special software, you have to record it. In that case remember to record the reference using the correct APA Style.

When an individual person holds the rights for the software, the name of that individual is recorded as the author. Otherwise the software has to be handled as an unwritten document. In that case you can use the title of the software for the author’s name. If the software is online accessible, use the URL instead of the name of the publisher and the location.

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Example APA Style: Personal communication

Conversations belong, according to the APA Style, to ‘personal communication’. Examples are: e-mails, letters, phone calls, personal conversations, interviews, questionnaires etc. A source that counts as personal communication is not recorded in the reference list, because the reader can’t check it.

That means you will refer to the personal communication in your text but won’t record it in the reference list. You can make a list with all names and data of your interviews in the appendix.

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Example APA Style: Photo/ Image

When referring to a photo or image according to the APA Style, the source in the reference list will be recorded in the same way as the one for a normal internet source. Behind the title of the source you have to add that the source is a photo/image in square brackets.

If the name of the photographer/ artist is unknown, you look to see if the photo is published on a website from an organization. If so, you can assume that the organization is the creator. If not, you can use the title of the photo/image for the name of the creator. If the title is unknown, you give a short description in squared brackets.

There are different apa rules if you would like to cite a movie in apa instead of an image.

See the following examples if you miss data: