How to quote a source
A quote is when you literally copy a passage of someone else’s words, whether it be a short phrase, a sentence or a small paragraph. You can use quotes to define concepts, provide evidence or support an argument.
Example of a quote:
- The quoted text is surrounded by quotation marks
- The original author(s) is correctly cited
Introducing a quote
There are three main ways to introduce quotes in your essay. Here are some examples:
Introduce the author, followed by the quote:
Incorporate the quote into your paragraph:
Introduce the study or article itself:
Shortening a quote
You can also shorten a quote; for example, you might replace a redundant or irrelevant part of a quote with ellipses (…). If shortening a quote, be careful not to take it out of context. Do not use a shortened quote from a source that otherwise contradicts or does not agree with the context as evidence.
Example of a shortened quote
As you can see, the shortened quote is more to the point, but remains in context.
This example is also useful to see how to add text to a quote. This is only to be done when the original quote clearly misses a word that should be there.
In this case, [years-ago] has been added as the speaker forgot to include this, but the reader needs the additional words to clearly understand the sentence.
Citing a quote
All direct quotes (and paraphrased ideas) must include a citation of the original source. If you do not cite the quotes used, you risk committing plagiarism. Be aware that the consequences of plagiarism can be serious.
The way you cite a source depends on the citation style for your essay. It is important to be aware of the specific rules for quoting according to the citation style you are required to use.
Examples of in-text citations:
Sometimes the differences between how to cite are very subtle, while other citation styles vary significantly. To learn more, read this article about in-text citations. Sources with multiple authors are cited slightly different.
How long should a quote be?
The use of quotes does not show original thinking, so you should always try to keep a quote as short as possible, preferably no longer than a few sentences.
In academic writing, it is preferable to use quotes sparingly, so there is no specific standard regarding minimum or maximum word count. However, a quote of more than 40 words is considered long. In this case, it is most often better to summarize the information rather than quote.
How to block quote
If you have found a longer quote that simply must be used in its entirety and not paraphrased or shortened, you will need to format it as a block of indented text, i.e. a block quote. This is most common in research about literature or poetry, where detailed analysis of the original text may be required and your readers will need to see examples.
When to block quote according to citation style
|When to block quote||Quotes longer than 40 words||Quotes of prose longer than four lines|
Quotes of poetry/verse longer than three lines
|Quotes longer than 30 words||Quotes longer than 100 words|
Example of a block quote (APA style):
Tolkien favours the use of long sentences and detailed descriptions that envelop the reader in the fictional world of his creation. Indeed, in some cases, Tolkien’s sentences are so long they form a paragraph of their own:
To the end of his days Bilbo could never remember how he found himself outside, without a hat, a walking-stick or any money, or anything that he usually took when he went out; leaving his second breakfast half-finished and quite unwashed-up, pushing his keys into Gandalf’s hands, and running as fast as his furry feet could carry him down the lane, past the great Mill, across The Water, and then on for a mile or more. (Tolkien, 1937, p. 16)
How many quotes should you use?
As using a large number of quotes does not increase the readability of your essay, it is wise to limit the frequency and occurrence. Plus, if you use too many quotes, you may appear lazy, as though you do not understand the source properly or like you did not read the entire text.
Most academic sources recommend that quotes comprise roughly 10% of your essay; we advise you to aim for 5% or less. Therefore, you should limit the use of quotes to only when necessary. Your own voice should always be dominant in your paper.
The subject of study also has an impact on how many quotes you use. For example, more quotes will be required in humanities research compared with scientific study, which typically focuses more on summarizing or experiments and results.
Be sure to check with your university to see whether there is a specific percentage of quotes that must be adhered to in your essay or paper.