How to use footnotes and endnotes
Footnotes are superscript numbers (1) placed within the body of text. They can be used for two things:
- As a form of citation in certain citation styles
- As a provider of additional information.
Using footnotes has one big advantage; you can include additional information without distracting the reader from the main text.
Using footnotes for citations
This means that if you want to cite a source, you add a superscript number at the end of the sentence that includes the information from this source.
This number corresponds to a footnote or endnote citation, where you include information such as the author, title of work, date, etc. What you include depends on the citation style.
Example of a footnote/endnote citation:
Citation styles such as Chicago A, OSCOLA, Turabian and ACS require the use of footnote citations instead of author-date in-text citations.1
1Courtney Gahan, What are footnotes and endnotes? Amsterdam: Scribbr, 2018.
Citation styles using footnotes and endnotes
Citation styles using footnotes: Chicago A, OSCOLA, Turabian, ACS
Citation styles using endnotes: Vancouver, IEEE, AMA, NLM, AAA, ABNT
Your supervisor will be able to tell you which citation style you should be using. It is crucial to use your citation style correctly in order to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism has serious consequences.
Using footnotes for additional information
Even if you are not required to use footnotes because of your designated citation style, you might choose to include footnotes to provide the reader with supplementary information that could be useful but is not critical to the understanding of the interpretation presented.
If you wish to include footnotes or endnotes because you want to provide supplementary information, you should consider:
- The number of notes. Too many footnotes can clutter the page.
- The reader’s perspective. What is more convenient for them?
How to insert footnotes
Microsoft Word makes it very easy to insert footnotes, following these simple steps:
1. Place the cursor where you would like the superscript number to appear.
2. Click on “Insert Footnote” in the “References” tab. The superscript number will appear in the text automatically.
3. The corresponding number will be automatically inserted in the footer ready for you to add the footnote citation.
4. Type in your footnote citation.
You can follow the same process for endnotes, simply by choosing “Insert Endnote” in the “References” tab.
By default, footnotes will be numbered 1, 2, 3, etc, while endnotes will apply Roman numerals, e.g. i, ii, iii. If you would like to change this, simply click the small arrow in the footnotes/endnotes section under the “References” tab, and select the option you prefer from the dropdown menu.
How to format footnotes
- Don’t use the same number twice, even if using the same source more than once. Each time you mention the source on a new page, it should be allocated the chronological number that fits with the other footnote citations on that page.
- Footnote citations must be in a smaller font than the main text of your document. If you use a 12-point font for your main text, use a 10-point font for your footnotes.
- The footnote number is placed immediately after the word to which the footnote citation refers. If the footnote citation refers to a paragraph, then place the footnote number immediately after the final punctuation mark.
- Footnote numbering is usually reset with each new chapter, but you can also choose to number them continuously throughout your dissertation.