Example APA Style: Oration

The oration is a speech given by the professor, when he or she takes office.

When you want to refer to an oration according to the APA Style , you first have to find out if the oration is published or not.

The oration is published

It is common that a professor publishes his oration. That happens mostly via a pdf-document, which you can download from the internet.

In that case you use the same notation as for a book. In square brackets you add [oration] to the reference.

APA-formatAuthorLastName, Initials. (Year). TitleBook [Oration]. Retrieved from http://WebAddress
In reference listHagoort, G. (2007). Cultureel ondernemerschap [Oration]. Retrieved from http://binoq.nl/lib/Documenten/ cultureel%20ondernemerschap/Oratie_Hagoort.pdf
In the text
  • Research suggests that … (Hagoort, 2007).
  • In the oration Hagoort (2007) found that … .
Open example in the APA Citation Generator

The oration is not published

When the oration is not published, the speech is not accessible for a third party. In that case you can use the APA Style for “personal communication”.

Personal communication
APA-formatDon’t record in the reference list
In reference listDon’t record in the reference list
In the text
  • From the oration it was obvious that … (E. Smet, personal communication, September 22, 2015).
  • E. Smet (personal communication, September 22, 2015) suggested that the problem could be solved by … .

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Koen Driessen

Koen has written multiple theses and founded, together with Bas and Richard, the thesis editing company Scribbr in 2012.

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