Should I include the exact publication date or just the year in an APA journal citation?
The inclusion of volume and issue numbers makes a more specific date unnecessary.
An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:
Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.
If you adapt or reproduce a table or figure from another source, you should include that source in your APA reference list. You should also acknowledge the original source in the note or caption for the table or figure.
Tables and figures you created yourself, based on your own data, are not included in the reference list.
APA doesn’t require you to include a list of tables or a list of figures. However, it is advisable to do so if your text is long enough to feature a table of contents and it includes a lot of tables and/or figures.
A list of tables and list of figures appear (in that order) after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way.
In an APA style paper, use a table or figure when it’s a clearer way to present important data than describing it in your main text. This is often the case when you need to communicate a large amount of information.
Before including a table or figure in your text, always reflect on whether it’s useful to your readers’ understanding:
If the data you need to present only contains a few relevant numbers, try summarizing it in the text. If describing the data makes your text overly long and difficult to read, a table or figure may be the best option.
In APA Style, all sources that are not retrievable for the reader are cited as personal communications. In other words, if your source is private or inaccessible to the audience of your paper, it’s a personal communication.
Common examples include conversations, emails, messages, letters, and unrecorded interviews or performances.
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your in-text citation. If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website), you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, “Linking” section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations, as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s likely to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, place the month, day, and year directly after the word “Retrieved”, and before the URL.
The 7th edition APA Manual, published in October 2019, is the most current edition. However, the 6th edition, published in 2009, is still used by many universities and journals.
The American Psychological Association anticipates that most people will start using the 7th edition in the spring of 2020 or thereafter.
It’s best to ask your supervisor or check the website of the journal you want to publish in to see which APA guidelines you should follow.
If you’re citing from an edition other than the first (e.g. a 2nd edition or revised edition), the edition is abbreviated in parentheses after the book’s title (e.g. 2nd ed. or rev. ed.).
The 6th edition of the APA manual requires you to include the publisher’s location when you cite from a print book. The city and state should be included for US-based publishers, the city and country for publishers anywhere else.
If you are following the 7th edition, just write the name of the publisher – no location information is required.
If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a database or in print, just omit the DOI.
If an article has no DOI, and you accessed it through a website other than a database (for example, the journal’s own website), include a URL linking to the article.
The old guidelines were to present DOIs by writing “doi:” followed by the numerical string. For example:
If you’re following the 6th edition, this format is still accepted, as long as it’s used consistently.
When citing an entire website or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015).
Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you don’t include a locator in the in-text citation.
Sources with 3–5 authors are written in full the first time and shortened from the second citation onwards. Sources with 6+ authors are always shortened, even the first time.
The easiest way to set up APA format in Word is to download Scribbr’s APA format Word template. This will make sure that:
In addition, you’ll have an easy-to-follow structure with examples and useful links to more information.
There are many guidelines and exceptions when citing sources in APA format. The easiest and most effective way of citing in APA format is by using Scribbr’s free APA Citation Generator. This is how it works:
APA is a publication manual widely used by professionals, researchers and students in the social and behavioural sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.
Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in before applying APA format.
Page numbers should be right aligned in the header (top of the page). Don’t forget to set the font to Times New Roman, size 12.
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