Descriptive research aims to accurately and systematically describe a population, situation or phenomenon. It can answer what, when, where, when and how questions, but not why questions. To determine cause and effect, experimental research is required.
A descriptive research design can use a wide variety of quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate one or more variables. Unlike in experimental research, the researcher does not control or manipulate any of the variables, but only observes and measures them.
When to use a descriptive research design
Descriptive research is an appropriate choice when the research aim is to identify characteristics, frequencies, trends, correlations, and categories.
It is useful when not much is known yet about the topic or problem. Before you can research why something happens, you need to understand how, when and where it happens.
Descriptive research question examples
- How has the Amsterdam housing market changed over the past 20 years?
- Do customers of company X prefer product X or product Y?
- What are the main genetic, behavioural and morphological differences between European wildcats and domestic cats?
- What are the most popular online news sources among under-18s?
- How prevalent is disease A in population B?
- What are the most significant risks in nuclear energy production?
Descriptive research methods
Descriptive research can use both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Surveys allow you to gather large volumes of data that can be analyzed for frequencies, averages and patterns. They are a common method in correlational research, a type of descriptive research that aims to find relationships between variables. Other common uses of surveys include:
- Describing the demographics of a country or region
- Gauging public opinion on political and social topics
- Evaluating satisfaction with a company’s products or an organization’s services
Observations allow you to gather data on behaviours and phenomena without having to rely on the honesty and accuracy of respondents. This method is often used by psychological, social and market researchers to understand how people act in real-life situations.
Observation of physical entities and phenomena is also an important part of research in the natural sciences. Before you can develop testable hypotheses, models or theories, it’s necessary to observe and systematically describe the subject under investigation.
A case study can be used to describe the characteristics of a specific subject (such as a person, group, event or organization). Instead of gathering a large volume of data to identify patterns across time or location, case studies gather detailed data to identify the characteristics of a narrowly defined subject.
Rather than aiming to describe generalizable facts, case studies often focus on unusual or interesting cases that challenge assumptions, add complexity, or reveal something new about a research problem.