What are the different types of citation styles?

There are many different citation styles used across different academic disciplines, but they fall into three basic approaches to citation:

  • Parenthetical citations: Including identifying details of the source in parentheses—usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if available (author-date). The publication date is occasionally omitted (author-page).
  • Numerical citations: Including a number in brackets or superscript, corresponding to an entry in your numbered reference list.
  • Note citations: Including a full citation in a footnote or endnote, which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.