How to use APA style abbreviations in your dissertation
When should you use abbreviations?
According to the APA guidelines, abbreviations should be limited to cases in which:
- the abbreviation is standard and will not make the text difficult to understand; and
- using it will save space and significantly help to avoid repetition.
Measurements and statistical indicators should only be abbreviated when they are accompanied by numerical values, for example, M = 7.53, SD = 6.85 and 2 mg. In addition, only the following time abbreviations can be used: h (hours), min (minutes) and s (seconds). Abbreviations are not used for days, weeks, months and years.
Introducing an abbreviation
Include the abbreviation in parentheses behind the full term to introduce it. For example: computer-mediated communication (CMC). Now that the reader knows what this abbreviation means, you must consistently use it in the text.
Abbreviations should generally not be used in three places: the title of your paper, research questions/sub-questions and the very start of a sentence. In these instances, use the full term instead.
If an abbreviation is very commonly understood, you can use it without formally introducing it. Examples include HIV and IQ.
Periods and spaces
Do not use periods at the end of abbreviations related to measurement, such as kW, kg and min. If an abbreviation uses only capital letters (such as HTML, CSS and UK), don’t include any periods or spaces.
Periods and spaces may be used in the following cases:
- a proper name (A.J. Diepen);
- participants who wish to maintain some anonymity (H.R.L.);
- when the abbreviation for “United States” is used as an adjective (U.S. Congress);
- certain Latin abbreviations (etc.);
- source references (Vol. 3, pp. 324-326, 2nd ed.); and
- the abbreviation for inch (in.).
Abbreviations are generally pluralized by adding an “s” (e.g. BMWs, GPSs and mins). No apostrophe is necessary. If the abbreviation is in italics, the “s” should be in regular font (as in SDs).
Abbreviations related to sources
In-text citations and reference list entries should be as concise as possible, which makes abbreviations quite handy to use. One important rule is to always abbreviate the first and middle names of authors and editors (such as Verhoeven, T. & Bearded, A. M.).
|Revised edition||Rev. ed.|
|Second edition||2nd ed.|
|Editor(s)||Ed. / Eds.*|
|Page(s)||p. / pp.|
|Volume(s)||Vol. / vols.|
* The abbreviations for “edition” and “editor” seem the same, but note that the former starts with a lowercase letter (ed.) while the latter uses a capital letter (Ed.).
** Names of translators are not mentioned, except for classical works that have been translated several times. In this case, include the translator (if known) after the title and the original year of publication at the very end. For example: Shakespeare, W. (2010) A Midsummer Night’s Dream. (M. Driessen, trans.). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Publishing Wereldbibliotheek. (Original work published in 1595).
Abbreviations in your citations and reference list
If you take advantage of our APA Generator, you do not have to worry that your citations and reference list entries use abbreviations correctly – they are generated automatically for you.
General rules for abbreviations in your thesis
We have also compiled the rules about using abbreviations in a thesis.