What are the types of extraneous variables?

There are 4 main types of extraneous variables:

  • Demand characteristics: environmental cues that encourage participants to conform to researchers’ expectations.
  • Experimenter effects: unintentional actions by researchers that influence study outcomes.
  • Situational variables: environmental variables that alter participants’ behaviors.
  • Participant variables: any characteristic or aspect of a participant’s background that could affect study results.