What is meant by model selection?

In statistics, model selection is a process researchers use to compare the relative value of different statistical models and determine which one is the best fit for the observed data.

The Akaike information criterion is one of the most common methods of model selection. AIC weights the ability of the model to predict the observed data against the number of parameters the model requires to reach that level of precision.

AIC model selection can help researchers find a model that explains the observed variation in their data while avoiding overfitting.